Read Kashf al-Mahjoob or Revelation of the Mystery, the Oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism

Kashf al-Mahjoob (کشف المحجوب)--Revelation of the Mystery--is the oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism written by the eminent 11th century Persian Sufi master, Ali Hujwiri better known as Hazrat Data Ganj-Bakhsh in Indian Subcontinent.

"There is a shrine in Lahore [Pakistan] that attracts the kings and rulers and common people alike. This practice has persisted for last many centuries. The man lying in his shrine was embraced by all communities including the Hindus and Sikhs and Parsees. Even after the passage of 966 years, his fame has risen everyday, evermore. Even after his demise, he is revered as a saint, and his tomb is a place of seeking spiritual blessings. Nowadays we connect with him, Ali Hujwiri, chiefly through his masterpiece, Kashf-ul-Mahjub. The book brought the author everlasting reverence and fame.According to R A Nicholson, Hujwiri was born in the last decade of the tenth century or in the first decade of the eleventh century in Ghazna, now in Afghanistan.

Apart from Kashf-ul-Mahjub, according to his own statement, Hujwiri was the author of another nine books, none of which have survived. R. A. Nicholoson has mentioned them by name. Kashf-ul-Mahjub was written in Lahore, in response to the request of a certain God-seeker Abu Saeed, e relative or fellow-townsman of the author. During the composition of the book, the writer was hindered by the lack of the books which were left in his hometown. Still he – making use of his encyclopedic knowledge – managed to produce a book which excelled Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushairi's great work on Sufism ar-Risala al-Qushairiyya. Al-Qushairi was a Hujwiri's contemporary.

 Kashf-ul-Mahjub deals with the complete system of Sufism, setting out and discussing its principles and practices. An early orthodox work on tasawwuf in Persian, Kashf-ul-Mahjub includes references to other mystic writers and their works. The work sheds light on the history, ideology and practice of Sufism. The author offers the traveller on the Path (salik) universal and timeless advice on belief, contemplation, generosity, spiritual courtesy, prayer, almsgiving, companionship, love and purification from foulness. In addition, he helps us distinguish false spirituality and false guides from the real, a discernment just as significant today as then.

This classic text contains brief biographies of the eminent saints of the past and the present, including Fudail ibn Iyaz, the robber who becomes a great spiritual director; Ibrahim ibn Adham, the prince who renounces everything when the divine call found way to his heart; Malik ibn Dinar, who is awoken to the spiritual reality by a voice from the unseen; and Habib Ra'i, whose sheep are looked after by his wolf. The book is a rich store of anecdotes. Stories built around their lives arouse the interest of the reader. Their words of wisdom help one in inner awakening.
An important theme that runs through the book is strictly practising the outward observances of Islamic injunctions. A great upholder of the sacred law, Ali Hujwiri expalins clearly that no God-seeker – not even one who attains the supreme degree of spiritual advancement – is above the commands of the Qur'an and Sunna. A true Sufi is, in the eyes of Ali Hujwiri, only the one who has held fast to the embrace of the Holy Prophet, and has observed the outward forms of devotion which are incumbent on every Muslim; he must follow the path of the inner spiritual truth of mysticism and Sharia Law; they should not be separated from each other. "The Law without the Truth," says Hujwiri, "is ostentation, and the Truth without the Law is hypocrisy. Their mutual relation may be compared to that of body and spirit: when the spirit departs from the body, the living body becomes a corpse, and the spirit vanishes like wind. The Moslem profession of faith includes both: the words, 'There is no God but Allah,' are the Truth, and the words, 'Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah,' are the Law; anyone who denies the Truth is an infidel, and any one who rejects the Law is a heretic."

Kashf-ul-Mahjub is a powerful and persuasive writing. The authenticity of the book appeals equally to spiritualists and formalists; its material comes from the primary sources of Islamic law. Hundreds of Qur'anic verses plus traditions elevate the rank of the book. What the Qur'an preaches and the Prophet experiences, an aspirant to Sufism puts into practice.

R A Nicholson, an eminent English Orientalist, writes in the preface of Kashf-ul-Mahjub, which he rendered into English: "It … has the merit … of bringing us into immediate touch with the author himself, his views, experiences, and adventures, while incidentally it throws light on the manners of dervishes in various parts of the Moslem world. His exposition of the Sufi doctrine and practice is distinguished not only by wide learning and firsthand knowledge but also by the strongly personal character impressed on everything he writes."

The name itself explains the function of the book: it raises the curtain of heedlessness. The book has been recommended by scholars and sufi masters as a guide for developing positive personality traits. Awliya Allah have paid homage to the book in different words: it a guide for the novice and beacon light for master-sailors; comprehensive advice; a unique book and a perfect guide; instrumental to the discovery of a perfect guide. In her book "Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries", Anna Suvorova holds that Allama's Iqbal's verse 'The fame of the Truth was exalted by his words', probably alludes to Kashf-ul-Mahjub.

On certain issues the author quotes earlier authors and analysizes their ideas before giving his own opinion. His commentary on such occasions shows us the depth of knowledge with which the Lord blessed him. Many moral lessons of mysticism are illustrated by examples from the writer's own experience on the path of enlightenment. Also, in order to illustrate his point, at times he relates stories of contemporary and past sufi masters.

Some moral and faith-inspiring stories and states are quoted below from Kashf-ul-Mahjub. We must allow the venerable mystic to speak directly to the reader, to instruct.

Illustrating the rules of companionship, he gave the following anecdote. It is related that a man prayed, while he was circumambulating the Ka'ba, "O Allah, make my brethren good!" On being asked why he did not implore a blessing for himself in such a place, he replied: "I have brethren to whom I shall return. If they are good, I shall be good with them, and if they are wicked, I shall be wicked with them."

Here is another story which tells us the fruit of sincere obedience to Allah. A devout man cares so much about others… A man came to the house of Imam Hasan ibn Ali and said that he owed four hundred dirhems. Imam Hasan gave him four hundred dinars and went into the house, weeping. People asked him why he wept. He answered: "I have been negligent in making inquiry into the circumstances of this man, and have reduced him to the humiliation of begging."

Abu Sahl never put alms into the hand of a dervish, and always used to lay on the ground anything that he gave. "Worldly goods," he said, "are too worthless to be placed in the hand of a Moslem, so that my hand should be the upper and his, the lower."

All the three preceding stories from Kashf-ul-Mahjub are very much relevant to our turbulent time. In recent years, some fanatics have emerged who, in the name of religion, do away with the lives of others. But the above mentioned are the friends of Allah, His favourites, who do not like even to hurt the dignity of others. Their life is devoted the betterment of human beings. Undoubtedly, they have done a great service to the cause of Islam. Islam’s message is peace, harmony, love and tolerance, and this was the basis of spreading Islam in the subcontinent and the whole world over. Sufi saints and their works are an embodiment of this message." by Naved Jafri.


Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب or 'Revelation of the Mystery' translated by REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON (ENGLISH)

 Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب or 'Revelation of the Mystery' translated by Colonel (R) Muhammad Ashraf Javed (ENGLISH)

Read Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب Online (ENGLISH)

Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب (FARSI or PERSIAN)

 Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب (URDU)

Read Kashf al-Mahjoob- کشف المحجوب Online (URDU) 

 کشف المحجوب' مصنف علی حجویری یاٰ حضرت داتا گنج بخش ٓ در نیم قاره هندوستان, نخستین کتابی است که درباره تصوف به زبان فارسی نوشته شده است

هجویری و کشف المحجوب 

ابوالحسن علی بن عثمان الجلایی الهجویری احتمالاً در اواخر قرن چهارم هجری در غزنه (از بلاد افغانستان فعلی)به دنیا آمده و دوران کودکی را در جلاب و هجویر از محلات غزنه گذرانده است. پدرش شیخ عثمان بن علی، در زمانی که غزنه مرکز تجمع علما و فضلا و ارباب صوفیه بود، وارد غزنه شد و در همانجا اقامت گزید. و چون خود اهل معرفت و علم بود، مردم غزنه و حوالی آن به صداقت و سلامت او ایمان یافته وجودش را مغتنم شمردند
مادر هجویری از خاندان پرهیزگاری بود،چنانکه برادرش (دائی هجویری)را تاج الاولیاءمی خوانده اند و مرقدش زیارتگاه بود
هجویری در شریعت از مذهب امام ابو حنیفه و در طریقت از مسلک جنیدیه پیروی می کرده چنانکه خود در صفحه ی دویست و سی و پنج(285)کتابش می گوید:مشایخ من-ره- جمله جنیدی بوده اند.هجویری مردی کثیرالسفر بود.واز جمله به سفر های خود به عراق،فرغانه،شام،آذربایجان،خراسان،سرخس،ماوراءالنهر و ترکمنستان اشاره هایی دارد
او سرانجام-گویا به امر پیر خود-غزنه را به قصد لاهور ترک کرد و شبانه وارد آن جا شد.فردای آن روز جنازه ی شیخ حسین زنجانی را- که هجویری به جانشینی او برگزیده شده بود-برای دفن به لاهور بردند
هجویری در سفراخیرخود که چهل سال سن داشت به نشرحقایق اسلام درسرزمین هند پرداخت
او باسلاح عشق و محبت گروه کثیری از مردم قاره ی هند را به صراط مستقیم هدایت کرد.و با ترویج اسلام واقعی روح تازه ای را در کالبد آنان دمید و از محبت جاودانه ای برخوردارگشت چنانکه امروز پس از گذشت بیش از نهصد سال،مردم کماکان به زیارت مرقدش می روند و از تربتش مدد می جویند
تاریخ وفات هجویری،همچون تاریخ تولدش معلوم نیست.عطار در تذکره ی الاولیاء تنها به ذکر نامی از او قناعت کرده است.و عبدالرحمن جامی نیز در نفحات الانس شرح حال او را بدون ذکر تاریخ ولادت و وفات،آورده است
داراشکوه در کتاب سفینه الاولیاء سال مرگ هجویری را  464قید کرده است. و نیکلسون در مقدمه ی خود بر ترجمه ی انگلیسی کتاب کشف المحجوب تاریخ وفات هجویری را بین سال های 465و469 و یا بعد از سال 469 نوشته است
از آن جا که در کشف المحجوب، آنگاه که مولف از قشیری نام می برد او را با جمله ی دعایی رحمه اله علیه، یاد می کند،و سال وفات قشیری را نیز در 465است، ظاهرا باید وفات هجویری پس از این سال باشد.مگر اینکه بگوییم این جمله دعائی بعد ها به وسیله ی کاتبی بدان افزوده شده است.و با توجه به همه ی مدارک و ماخذی که موجود است و آنچه بر سنگ قبر او نوشته شده-که شعری است ماده ی تاریخ فوت او-می توان گفت که سال وفات هجویری 465یا کمی بعد است

قطعه ی از جامی بر سر مزار او چنین است

خانقاه علی هجویری خاک جاروب از درش بردار
توتیا کن به دیده ی تحقیق تا شوی واقف بر آن اسرار

مقبره ی هجویری هم اکنون در لاهورزیارتگاه اهل دل است

کشف المحجوب

چنانکه از محتوای کتاب کشف المحجوب بر می آید هجویری دارای تالیف معتددی بوده و از جمله دیوان شعری نیز داشته است که در همان صفحه ی اول کتاب خود بدان اشاره می کند.اما از آثار او هیچ کدام جز کتاب کشف المحجوب باقی نمانده است.و این کتاب که یکی از بهترین و ارزشمند ترین کتاب صوفیه است، به اعتقاد عده ای نخستین کتابی است که در شرح طریقه ی صوفیه به زبان فارسی نوشته شده و خود از امهات کتب ای طایفه است،که بعد ها مورد استفاده ی بسیاری از محققین و نویسندگان پس از او،قرار گرفته است.اما هجویری خود نیز از کتب اسلاف خویش استفاده کرده و از جمله تالیف کشف المحجوب به کتب اللمع،تالیف ابونصر سراج (م-378) طبقات صوفیه،تالیف ابوعبدالرحمن سلمی نیشابوری (م.412) و کتاب الرساله،تالیف ابو القاسم قشیری، نظر داشته است

سبک کتاب

مرحوم محمد تقی بهار،ملک الشعراء،در کتاب سبک شناسی،ج2،صفحه187،درباره ی سبک این کتاب می نویسد:این کتاب از حیث سبک بالا تر و اصیل تر،و به دوره ی اول نزدیک تر است تا سایر کتب صوفیه،و می توان آن را یکی از کتب طراز اول شمرد که هر چند در قرن پنجم تالیف شده و بیش از کتب قدیم دستخوش تازی و لغت های آن زبان است،اما باز نمونه ی سبک قدیم را از دست نداده و رویهمرفته دارا ی سبک کهنه است

افعال و لغات کهنه و غریب و استعمالات دوره ی اول به تمامی دراین کتاب دیده می شود و از این گذشته اصطلاحات خاص نیز از خود دارد که غالب آن ها بعد از این ، در کتب تصوف مصطلح گردیده است

نمونه هایی از لغات فارسی که در کتاب کشف المحجوب آورده است

شبولیدن وقت: متفرق ساختن
پای بازی : رقص
پای جامه: پای افزار
گرد پای نشستن: چهار زانو
بوده گشتن: موجود شدن
خوار دشت: توهین و خوار ساختن
زفان: زبان
برسیدن: کامل و تمان شدن
روزگار مرد: مرد بزرگ و فوق العاده
بی از آن که: بی آن که
فراگفت آمدن: به سر سخن باز شدن

Share this:

©2009 - 2017
Thank you for visiting Maulana Rumi Online, a blog dedicated entirely to the life, works and teachings of Maulana Jalaluddin Muhammad Balkhi better known simply as Rumi here in our beloved America. Just as a memory refresher, all articles, e-books, images, links and reading materials listed in this Blog are solely for Educational purposes. This Blog is designed and maintained by yours truly, your comments, critiques or suggestions are quite welcome and greatly appreciated. As for my own Rumi Translations, you are welcome to copy and use them as long as it's not for commercial purposes. For best viewing, please try this Blog on Google Chrome Browser. This is a very long Blog though, so please make sure to use the Scroll To Top or Bottom Buttons at the left side, or Back To Top Button at the bottom right corner of your screen for smooth navigation. If you have any question, comment, critique or suggestion, please contact me by clicking the Contact Box embedded at the right middle corner. As Rumi would say, "Come, come, whoever you are, come back again.."!

To link to this blog, simply copy and paste the code below into your blog or website