By common consent, Rumi's Masnavi ranks among the world's greatest masterpieces of religious literature."
"The Masnavi - also written as Mesnavi or Mathnawi in English - is a poetic form in Persian, Ottoman and Urdu literature. This poetic form was born in Persia and had a patronage of Ottoman Sultans for centuries. This is evident by the fact that most of the Masnavi that are still available for research are either in Persian or in Persian lashed Urdu. With the advent of Muslim rule in India, this poetic form got a new home in the courts of Delhi and Deccan Sultanates where it flourished for centuries before they were replaced by other popular poetic forms such as Ghazal and Nazam. The Masnavi consists of an indefinite number of couplets, with the rhyme scheme AA, BB and CC...etc.
The subject matter of Masnavi is varied and ranges from love and courtship to religion and philosophy. There is no cap on meter and a Masnavi can incorporate one or all the 7 meters that are available in Persian and Urdu poetry. Usually, a Masnavi has no limit in terms of verses and can range from 24 to 24000 verses at the same time. The most well known Masnavi is the Masnavi Manavi or The Spiritual Couplets of Profound Meanings. Masnavi Manavi was composed by the 13th century Persian Sufi poet, Jalaluddin Muhammad Balkhi Rumi. The Masnavi of Rumi is famous throughout the world for its detailed discussions on contemporary philosophies and religions. It consists of six books of poems containing more than 25,000 verses that are primarily denoted to intra as well as inter-religious discussions. These discussions later melt in to discussions of philosophies."
Urdu poetry has a wide range of forms. The Masnavi, for example, is a long narrative romantic poem like The Roman de la Rose of medieval Europe. A marsia is an elegiac poem that grieves over the death of an important person while a qasida, on the other hand, is a panegyric in praise of a king or a patron, usually written in a highly exaggerated style and diction. A na’at is a poem expressing the poet’s devotion to the Prophet of Islam. A rubai is a four-line poem on a specific theme like The Ruba’iat of Omar Khayyam.
Humorous and satirical poetry is also plentiful in Urdu. However, the most popular and important form of poetry is undoubtedly the ghazal. The ghazal is a love poem written in stanzas, consisting of two hemstitches called a sh’er. A ghazal may have seven or nine she’rs but each of them may be independent of the other in thought. One she’r may be about the pangs of separation and next about the impermanence of the world, while the one after that may express the undying devotion to the loved one—human or divine. Thus a ghazal is a collection of verses expressing the poet’s thoughts and emotions joined together by the rhyming end words. It allows the poet the freedom to move from topic to topic at will. The love expressed in the ghazal is idealized love in which the beloved is adored and worshipped like a goddess. It is like Palamon’s love for Emily in Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale and it is unlike Arcite’s love which is sensual and worldly.
In the 19th century, Urdu came under Western influence because of British dominance, and the British system of education it fostered. Thoughtful and enlightened people began to question the conventions and traditions of the old order. A powerful modernistic literary movement emerged in the 1930’s that sought to change the thought as well as forms of Urdu literature. Novels and short stories became very popular in this period. The new poets started writing in blank verse and free verse in order to break away from the restricted traditional forms. Through their work poets and writers of fiction tried to reform the prevalent social and political system. Using their writings as social commentary, some talked ardently about freedom from the British rule. The ghazal, however, has survived as the most popular form of poetry in spite of these radical changes. People still gather in large numbers to listen to poets read their poems for long hours, sometimes all night.
A gathering of poets is called a mushaira and it is a small, intimate social function. Traditionally, the poets and members of the audience sit on a carpet covered floor in horse-shoe formation. The leader is usually the most distinguished poet or the most respected scholar. The reading of the poems starts with the youngest or the least known poet. An oil lamp or lighted candle is placed before the poet to indicate that it is his or her turn to read and to provide better lighting for his reading. In ascending order, the poets read their poems until the candle came to the leader. If the leader is a poet, he will read his poem. If not, he will comment on the poems read that day. Then, he will announce the misra-e-tarha or the half line of poetry on the metrical pattern by which the poets will have to write their poems for the next meeting.
After the mushaira, a discussion often ensues about poetry and finer points of literary and artistic concerns. This, sometimes, causes differences of opinion that lead to controversies for weeks and months. The mushaira can also lead to jealousies and rivalries.
Nowadays, on the subcontinent of India and Pakistan, the mushaira has changed somewhat but is still as vibrant and intellectually stimulating as ever. Mushairas are held in cities all over the world where there are concentrations of Urdu speaking populations. Recent times have seen a proliferation of mushairas in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. Most of the poets at these mushairas, interestingly enough, are not professional writers or academics. Some are bankers, scientists, lawyers, doctors, computer experts or belong to other professions, but continue with the tradition of the mushairas and a love for Urdu poetry more broadly."
RELATED READING MATERIALS:
- Persian Literature in India
- The Position of Gälib (1796-1869) in the History of Urdu and Indo-Persian Poetry
- Brief History of Urdu
The History of Urdu Language (in Urdu)
"This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. The earliest linguistic influences in the development of Urdu probably began with the Muslim conquest of Sindh in 711. The language started evolving from Farsi and Arabic contacts during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent by Persian and Turkic forces from the 11th century onward. Urdu developed more decisively during the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1858). When the Delhi Sultanate expanded south to the Deccan Plateau, the literary language was influenced by the languages spoken in the south, by Punjabi and Haryanvi, and by Sufi and court usage. The earliest verse dates to the 15th century, and the golden period of Urdu poetry was the 18th–19th centuries. Urdu religious prose goes back several centuries, while secular writing flourished from the 19th century onward. Modern Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is also spoken by many millions of people in India."
The History of Urdu Language (in Urdu)
مولاناجلال الدین رومی
مولاناجلال الدین رومی کی شخصیت اور ان کا کالام دونوں هی کسی تعارف کے محتاج نهیں۔ چھبیس ھزار چھ سو چھیاسٹھ اشعار پر مبنی ان کی مشهور زمانه مثنوی تصوف اور عشق الهٰی کے جمله موضوعات کو انتهائ سادگی روحانی اور عام فهم انداز مین بیان کرتی ھے۔ عشق الهٰی اور معرفت کے انتهائ مشکل و پیچیده نکات سلجھانے کے لیے مولانا نے سبق آموز حکایات و قصے کهانیوں سے مدد لی ھے جو بھی لکھا ھے قرآن و حدیث نبوی سے اس کی سند بھی بیان کی جاتی هے اس لیئے آج آٹھ سو سال گزر جانے کے باوجود ان کے کلام کی اهمیت و افادیت میں کوئ کمی واقع نهین ھوئ۔
مولانا جلال الدین رومی الملقب به مولوی معنوی سن باره سو سات میں بلخ میں پیدا ھوئے۔ آپ کے والد بزرگوار بهاء الدین اپنے دور کے مشهور علماء مین شمار کیئے جاتے تھے، حتی کے ان حلقهء درس میں حاکم وقت خوارزم شاه بھی شرکت کیا کرتے تھا۔ وحشی منگولوں کے حملوں کے منڈلاتے خطرات کے پیش نظر مولانا کے خاندان نے بلخ کو خیر باد کها اور پناه کی تلاش مین انا طویه کی راه لی، راستے میں نیشاپور میں رکے جهاں مشهور صوفی بزرگ عطار نیشا پوری سے ملاقات کی۔ عطا بڑے قیافه شناس تھے۔ جلال الدین رومی کو دیکھ کر سمجھ گئے که آگے چل کر یه بچه عشق و معرفت کی دنیا میں دھوم مچا دے گا۔ چناں چه انهوں نے بهاء الدین کو ان کی تربیت پر خصوصی توجه دینے کی هدایت کی۔ حج کی سعادت حاصل کرتے هوئے بهاء الدین اناطولیه پهنچے جهاں کے سلجوتی حاکم علاءالدین کیقباد نے انکا پرتپاک استقبال کیا۔ قونیه میں بهاء الدین نے ایک مدرسے میں تدریس شروع کی اور بهت جلد مشهور ھوگئے، ان کے انتقال کے بعد مولانا رومی نے والد کی گدی سنبھال لی۔ حلقهء درس میں شریک هونے والے حاکم وقت اور اعیان دولت ان سے بے انتها عقیدت رکھتے تھے۔
مولانا کی زندگی بڑے سکون سے گزررهی تھی، ایک دن گرمیوں کی صبح وه حوض کے پاس معمول کے مطابق درس دے رهے تھے، ایک خوانچه فروش حلوه بیچتا ھوا مدرسے کے احاطے میں آگیا۔ اپنے اطراف اور ماحول سے بے پرواه اور بے خبر اس جگه جا کر کھڑا ھواگیا جهاں مولانا تدریس میں مشغول تھے۔ خوانچه فروش نے تعجب سے پوچھا که یه سب کیا ھے، کیا ھورھا هے۔ مولانا نے بڑے تحمل سے کها یه تم نهین جانتے جاؤ، اپنا کام کرو۔ وه آگے بڑھا اور کتاب مولانا کے هاتھ سے لے کر اٹھا اور حوض میں پھینک دی۔ مولانا نے کها یه تم نے کیا کیا۔ میں نے تو کچھ بھی نهیں کیا۔ یه کهه کر اس نے حوض سے کتاب نکال کر رومی نے حیرت سے پوچھا، یه کیا ھے، اب باری اس کی تھی، یه تم نهیں جانتے یه که کر اس نے اپنا خوانچه اٹھایا اور اسی طرح صدا لگاتا ھوا باهر چلا گیا۔ یه حضرت شمس تبریز تھے۔ مولانا رومی، شمس تبریز کو اپنے ساتھ لے آئے۔ انهوں نے علم کی انتھائ اعلیٰ منازل طے کررکھی تھین، اب عشق الهٰی و معرفت کے سفر کا آغاز کیا جس مین قدم قدم پر انهیں اپنے مرشد شمس تبریز کی راه نمائ حاصل تھی۔ مولانا رومی نے رفته رفته اپنا رابطه اپنے ماحول اور گردو پیش سے منقطع کرلیا۔ بس وه تھے اور شمس تبریز کی صحبت۔ یه صورت حال ان کے شاگردوں کے لیے کسی طرح بھی قابل قبول نه تھی۔ چنانچه شمس تبریز انکے نزدیک متنازع شخصیت بن گئے، شاگردوں و عقیدت مندوں کے بدلتے هوئے تیور دیکھ کر ایک رات اچانک حضرت شمس تبریز غائب ھوگئے۔ بعض روایات کے مطابق انھیں شهید کردیا گیا۔
شمس تبریز کی جدائ مولانا رومی کے لیے ناقابل برداشت تھی۔ اپنے مرشد کے فراق میں خود و ارفتگی کے عالم میں انهوں نے فی البدیهه شعر کهنا شروع کردیئے۔ یوں عرفان و آگهی کی مضبوط ترین دستاویز مثنوی تخلیق ھوئ۔
اس مثنوی کے علاوه مولانا رومی کا دیوان کبیر، جو چالیس هزار اشعار پر مشتمل ھے، جس میں بائیس شعری مجموعے بشمول دیوان شمس تبریز عربی، ترکی اور یونانی زبانوں میں ان کا کلام۔ تصوف پر ایک کتاب فی مافیه، مجالس سبع اور مکتوبات، ایسی کتابیں هیں جو ان کے نام کو صوفیانه ادب میں همیشه روشن اور تابنده رکھیں گی۔
هر سال ستره دسمبر کو مولانا کا عرس [شب عروس] کے نام سے قونیه میں منعقد کیا جاتا ھے۔
مولانا رومی اور شمس تبریز
آہ را جز آسمان ہمدم نبود ۔۔۔۔۔ راز را غیر خدا محرم نبود
Masnavi of Maulana Rumi in Persian or Farsi
The following Urdu translations of Maulana Rumi's Masnavi Manavi are courtesy of the outstanding blog on Rumi in Urdu and English: Masnavi Rumi
مثنوی مولوی- فارسی شاعری کی مشہور ترین کتاب
مکمل چھ حصے
مصنف حضرت مولانا جلال الدین رومی
فارسی متن مع اردو ترجمہ از مولانا قاضی سجاد حسین
Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3 |
Contains translation of Masnavi of Maulana Rumi - complete 6 volumes - in Sindhi prose. Translated by Muhammad Ramzan Maheri (840 pages).
Tashbeehat-e Rumi (Sindhi)
Tashbeehat-e Rumi (in Sindhi), contains Sufi stories from Masnavi of Maulana Rumi translated and shortened in prose.
Contains Urdu translations of seventy seven Discourses or Sermons of Maulana Rumi known as Fihi Ma Fihi.
انتخابِ دیوانِ شمس تبریز-اردو
Selected poems from Maulana Rumi's famous Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi in Urdu.
Hayaat & Afkaar-e Maulana Rumi
The Life & Thoughts of Maulana Rumi - in Urdu.
Sawaneh Maulana Room (Urdu)
سوانح مولانا روم - مولانا شبلی نعمانی
A full biography of Maulana Rumi in Urdu by the eminent 20th century scholar of Indian Subcontinent, Maulana Shibli Nomani.
Dars-e Masnavi Maulana Room (Urdu)
Contains Urdu explanations of by Shah Hakeem Muhammad Akhtar who explains the lessons of in the light of Quran and Hadith.
Fughan-e Rumi (Urdu)
Contains Urdu explanations of by Shah Hakeem Muhammad Akhtar.
Ma'arif-e Mathnawi (Urdu)
The Commentary of the Mathnawi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Shah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar.
The Commentary of the Masnavi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Maulana Abdul Majeed Khansahaib.
Hikayat-e Rumi (Urdu)
حکایاتِ رومی- اردو
Contains a collection of tales and fables from Maulana Rumi's Masnavi in Urdu.
Hikayat-e Rumi - Urdu
حکایاتِ رومی- اردو
مولانا جلال الدین رومی قدس سرہ کی شہرہ آفاق مثنوی رومی سے نثری شکل میں منتخب حکایات و دروس
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi Aur Un Ki Kahaniyan (Urdu)
A beautifully written and crafted history and biography of Maulana Rumi in Urdu by Prof. Muhammad Abul Khair Kashfi.
Masnavi Maulana Room Ka Encyclopedia (Urdu)
Maulana Rumi Ki Jamalyat (Urdu)
ورڈ فائل | ٹیکسٹ فائل
"Professor Shakilu’r-Rahman needs no introduction to the scholars of Urdu literature. Author of numerous works on classical and modern Urdu literature, he has recently brought out a valuable book titled Maulana Rumi ki Jamalyat. The book comprises 12 chapters and each makes a fascinating reading.
According to Shakilu’r-Rahman, Sufism is characterized by two distinctive trends, namely, beauty and romanticism; hence the author dwells on the abiding literary contribution of Maulana Rumi within this framework. It is love underneath the Sufi’s heart that is not only revelatory but also creative.
Undoubtedly, Rumi brings home to us the supernal importance of looking beyond the external of the event or experience. Unless the exoteric and esoteric do not enter into a harmonious relationship, the Ultimate Truth will not reveal itself. Sama‘ of the dancing darwishes is not therefore music in the ordinary sense of the word but a creative process that makes the lover realize the beauty of his Creator. Knowledge of the Creator and the created thus gained is a wealth of immeasurable proportions. A gnostic (‘arif) is, indeed, nearer to Allah by virtue of the fragrance of his meaningful and creative existence.
The merit of Shakilu’r-Rahman’s work lies in his lucid analysis of the artistic skills of a great spiritual teacher like Rumi. As he explains, Rumi seeks a happy blending of the exterior and inner life. It is man’s heart alone that is capable of seeing Light everywhere. And what enables heart to perform this feat is knowledge. Rumi stresses the superb importance of knowledge for understanding the realities of material world in conjunction with the spiritual dimension of one’s terrestrial existence. True knowledge broadens one’s vision and is a prerequisite for intellectual and inner equilibrium..."
The Life and Work of Jalaluddin Rumi by the eminent Indian-born scholar of Rumi, late Professor Afzal Iqbal (1923 -1994) is A MUST READ if you're interested to learn more about Maulana Rumi's life, works, and Sufi teachings (Click above links or HERE to read the entire book online).
- The Life & Work of Jalalaluddin Rumi
- The Impact of Maulana Jalalaluddin Rumi on Islamic Culture
- Maulana Rumi: Hayat-o-Afkar
Story of Maulana Rumi from Birth to Grave (in Urdu)
Dars-e Masnavi Maulana Rumi (in Urdu by Dr. Qaderi)
Rumi in the Land of Khusrau
"Rumi, the mystic poet, was born in 1207 in Balkh, Afghanistan, which was then a part of the Persian Empire. Amir Khusrau was born in 1253 in Patiali, grew up on the banks of the river Ganges and composed poems of a mystic nature. 'Rumi in the land of Khusaru' is based on Tajjali, a Sufi concert where Persian and Indian dancers, musicians and singers perform in tandem with each other. The Indian musicians from regions of Kashmir, Awadh and Delhi render poems and compositions of Khusrau, and the Iranians sing the poems of Rumi. The film inter-cuts the concert with details from the life of Khusrau, and similarities between his poetry and Rumi's. The film also extensively uses the poetry of both the mystics."
The Rumi saint, a guide with conscience bright,
That train love and trance, does lead aright.
Beyond the sun and moon, his homestead lies,
With stay of galaxy his tent he ties.
The Quran’s light is in his breast aflame,
His mirror, cup of Jamsheed puts to shame.
Resolve and trust make Momin’s dynamite,
Whom ‘frenzy’; calls the man of purblind sight.
That musician of pure breed has
Thrown my being into tumult once again with his music.
Said he: The people have become aware of the secrets,
The East has awoken from its deep slumber;
Destiny has given it new aspirations,
And loosened its age-old chains.
No one, O knower of the secrets of the West,
Has experienced the fire of the West better than thee...
Iqbal paying glowing tribute to Rumi in Farsi in the Introduction of his masterpiece, What should then be done O People of the East
پس چہ بائد کرد اے اقوامِ شرق - علامہ اقبال
Allama Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library
علامه محمد اقبال لاهوری
Faqeer Urdu Books
Read Full Article HERE
- Masnavi Manvi by Maulana Rumi
- Divan Hafiz by Hafiz Shirazi
- Gulistan by Saadi Shirazi
- Kalam Baba Bullhay Shah by Baba Bullhay Shah
- Kalam Muhammad Bakhsh by Muhammad Bakhsh
- Mirat ul Irfan by Pir Meher Ali Shah
- Pand Nama by Sheikh Fariduddin Attar
- Heer Waris Shah by Syed Waris Shah
- Kuliyat Iqbal by Allama Iqbal
- Qaseeda Ghosia by Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
- Alftah ur Rabbani by Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
- Fatuh ul Ghaib by Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
- Minhaj ul Abdin by Imam Ghazali
- Kimya e Saadat by Imam Ghazali
- Ihya ul Aloom by Imam Ghazali
- Anees ul Arwah by Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti
- Mehre e Munir by Pir Meher Ali Shah
- Tazkirah tul Auliya by Farid ud Din Attar
- Kashf ul Mahjoob by Ali Hajwiri - Data Ganj Baksh
- Noor ul Huda by Sultan Bahu
- Awarif ul Maarif by Sheikh Soharwardi
- Tawaseen by Mansoor Hallaj
- Bahijat ul Asrar by Imam Shatnoofi Shafi
The Shrine of founder of 12th century Chishti Sufi Order in Indi, Moinuddin Chishti - better known as Hazrat Gharib Nawaz- in Ajmer, India.
The Sarcophagus of founder of 12th century Chishti Sufi Order in India, Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India.
"India has always been a land of great saints and free thinkers, which has been assimilating in its fold various cultures and thoughts from time to time. It is the land of ancient wisdom, where Sufism in its true spirit has flourished from time immemorial. However, in the current context of Sufism, it could be worthwhile to mention that Islam entered into India through the Sea route, through the land route from Persia into Sind and through the Khyber Pass. It is believed that the Sufis must have also used these routes, which were used by the Arab traders and military commanders.
The first great Sufi saint to visit India (undivided) was Ali el-Hujwiri popularly known in India as Data Ganj Bakhsh. He was a disciple of Muhammad al-Hasan al Khuttali who was connected with Junayad of Baghdad. He came to be known as Data Ganj Bakhsh after being addressed so at his tomb by Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti, the great Sufi saint of the Chishti order. Ali el-Hujwiri is considered to be the first authoritative Sufi writer who wrote several books on Sufism. His most famous book is Kashfu’l Mahjub, the first book on mysticism in the Persian language. Born in Ghazna in Afghanistan, around 1000 AD, he travelled from Syria to Turkistan and from the Indus to the Caspian Sea. During his journeys, he came across many saints and had deliberations with them. He received knowledge both from Abul Qasim Gurgani, a great Sufi Master of the Naqshbandi Order and Khwaja Muzaffar.
His Shaikh asked him to go and settle in Lahore. According to the description in Fuwaidu’l-Fuwad (a compilation of the sayings of great Sufi Master Khwaja Nizamuddin-Auliya of the Chishti Order) he was initially reluctant to go to Lahore as one of his co-disciples Shaikh Hasan Zanjani was already there. On insistence by his Master, he proceeded to Lahore. On entering the city of Lahore he witnessed the burial of Shaikh Hasan Zanjani, who had just passed away. He settled near Bhati Gate in Lahore, where his tomb is situated.
Ali el-Hujwiri continued to be greatly revered by all the saints of India, even after his death. Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti is believed to have paid a visit and offered prayers at his tomb on his arrival to India. It was during this visit that he paid respects to Ali el-Hujwiri by addressing him as ‘Ganj Baksh’ i.e. the munificent one which also meant ‘Data’ (giver) in Hindi, thus he came to be popularly known thereafter as ‘Data Ganj Baksh’..."
Read Full Articles Below:
The second epoch started during Junaid’s time. The Sufis of this period lived in a state of continued meditation and contemplation. This resulted in intuitive insights and intense spiritual experiences that could be expressed only symbolically or in unusual phrases. They were so emotionally affected by “sama’” that they swooned or tore their clothes in ecstasy. In this period the Sufis were better organized and were divided into sects. Sufi masters now began to send their disciples to distant lands. Many eminent Sufis also moved to India.
The third epoch started from the advent of Shaikh Abu Said Ibn Abdul Khair and Shaikh Abul Hasan Kharaqani. The Sufis of the period live in a state of ecstasy, which led to “Tawajjuh” (spiritual telepathy). In contemplating the union of temporal and eternal their individuality dissolved, and they even ignored their regular religious practices.
The fourth began with the birth of Shaikh Akbar Muhiyuddin Ibn al-‘Arabi (1165-1240 AD), when the Sufis discovered the theory of the five stages of the descent from “Wajibul Wujud” (Necessary Being), i.e. Ahadiyya (Essence of Primal One), Wahdaniyya (Unity of God), sphere of Arwah (sphere of Infinite Forms), sphere of Misal (Similitude or Angelic Forms), sphere of Ajsam (Bodies of Physical World).
Before reaching India, the movement of Tasawwuf had reached the highest point of its development in the twelfth century. After the conquest of northern India by the Muslims, various Sufi orders were established, in particular, the Chisti and Suhrawardiyya orders. The orders of Qadiri, Naqshabandi, Shuttari, Madari ect, also represented and functioned on more or less the same lines. The Sufi who left an indelible mark both on India and on the history of Sufism was Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Usman al-Hujwiri, known as Data Ganj Bakhsh, who reached Lahore in 1035 AD. He wrote Kashful Mahjub in Persian, contains biographies, thought and practices of Sufis from the prophet Muhammad’s day to his own time.
The order of the Chistis, founded by Khawaja Abdal Chisti (d. 966 AD), was introduced into India by Khawaja Muinuddin Chisti. He was born in Sistan in 1143 AD. He traveled widely in Islamic countries and came to Harun, a town in Nishapur, and became the disciple of Khawaja Usman Haruni, a famous saint of the Chisti order, who directed him to settle in India. Khawaja Muinuddin arrived in India in 1190 AD. , And first proceeded to Lahore, where he spent some times in meditation at the tomb of Ali Hujwiri. The surviving sayings of the Khawaja show that his life’s mission was to inculcate piety, humility, and devotion to God.
The Chisti mystics believed in the spiritual value of music and patronized professional singers, whatever their caste or religion might be. Khawaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, the successor of Muinuddin died in a state of ecstasy while listening to music.
Another Khawaja Muinuddin’s disciple, Shaikh Hamiduddin made Nagaur (Rajasthan) the chief Chistiyya order. He was then succeeded by his grandson Fariduddin Mahmud. One of Shaikh Farid’s disciples, Khawaja Ziyauddin Nakhshabi was a famous scholar who translated Chintamani Bhatta’s Suka-Saptati into Persian from Sanskrit and gave the title Tuti Nama.
Of the Khawaja Muinuddin’s disciples, Shaikh Fariduddin Ganjshakar or Baba Farid was very celebrated. He settled in Ajodhan and built his Jamaat Khana. Baba’s successor was Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya (1238-1325 AD), who came from Badaun but had settled in Delhi. Under Khawaja Nizamuddin, Chistiyya order became the dominant Sufi silsila in India. The collection of his conversation known as “Fawaid al-Fuad” compiled by his disciple, Amir Hasan. From him began the Chistiyya Nizamiyya, while Alauddin Sabir of Kalyar, another disciple of Baba Farid, led Chistiyya Sabiriyya.
Nizamuddin, known also as Mehboob Ilahi, stressed on the motive of love, which leads to the realization of God. He extended his love of God to the love of humanity without which the former would be incomplete. After Nizamuddin, some Chisti saints became the successors one after the other. They are Nasiruddin Chiragh Dahlavi, his malfuzat known as “Khairul Majalis”, Sayyid Muhammad Gesudaraz, who wrote “Khatairu al-Quds”, “Asma al-Asrar”, “Sharh Risala-e-Qushairi”, ect. Gesudaraz earlier works are based on Wahdatu al-Wujud, but was later converted to Wahdat al-Shuhud doctrines.
After the death of Shaikh Ruknuddin the Suhrawardiyya silsila declined in Multan but became popular in other provinces like Uch, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir and even Delhi. It was revitalized by Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari known as Makhdum Jahaniyan, the world traveler. He was puritan and strongly objected the Hindu influences to Muslim social and religious practices.
Another contemporary mystic who is worthy of mention was Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya Manairi (d. 1380 AD). He belonged to the Firdausia order, a branch of Suhrawardiyya. He compiled several books, i.e. “Fawaid al-Muridin”, “Irshadat al-Talibin”,”Rahat al-Qulub”, ect.
Qadiri order was founded by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Gilani of Baghdad (d. 1166 AD). The first who introduced it to India was Sayyid Muhammad Gilani Qodiri of Aleppo, who later settled in Uch where he died in 1517 AD. Other famous mystics of Qadiri order were and Shaikh Abdul Ma’ali of Lahore. Shaikh Abdul Haq Muahddis Dahlawi wrote many important books one of them was “Akhbar al-Akhyar”. Dara Shukoh, the son of Shah Jahan was a devotee of Qadiri order. He wrote “Safinat al-Awliya” and “Sakinat al-Awliya” on the mystics biographies.
Naqshabandi order seems to be destined to accept the challenge flung against orthodox Islam in India by the upholders of the doctrine of the “Unity of Being”, and the electicism of Akbar. Naqshabandi order is the offshoot of Khwajagan order. Khwajagan order was founded in Turkistan by Khwaja Ahmad Ata’ Yaswi. The order was popularized by Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshabandi (d. 1388 AD). After him the order was known as Naqshabandi. He emphasized to follow the sunnah. The order was introduced to India by Khwaja Baqi’ Billah (1563-1603 AD) and popularized in India by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624 AD), known as Mujaddid Alf Thani. After him the order named Naqshabandiyya Mujaddidiyya.
Rejecting the “Wahdat al-Wujud” (Unity of Being) he expounded the doctrine of “Wahdat al-Shuhud” (Apparantism). Shah Wali Ullah, another mystic of Naqshabandi order tried to compromise both the two doctrines. In his treatise “Faislatul Wahdatul Wujud wa al-Shuhud” he stood as an arbiter on the dispute of both doctrines. But in other occasion he observed in his book “Tafhimat Ilahia”, that “Apparantism” is higher than that of the “Unity of Being”.
Carl W. Ernst is a specialist in Islamic studies, with a focus on West and South Asia. His published research, based on the study of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu, has been mainly devoted to the study of Islam and Sufism. On the faculty of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill since 1992, he has been department chair (1995-2000) and Zachary Smith Professor (2000-2005). He is now William R. Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Professor (2005- ) and Director of the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations.
Autobiography of a Sufi - Paramsant Samarth Sadguru Mahatma Ramchandraji Maharj alias Janab Laalaaji Maharaj
"This book studies the veneration practices and rituals of the Muslim saints. It outlines the principle trends of the main Sufi orders in India, the profiles and teachings of the famous and less well-known saints, and the development of pilgrimage to their tombs in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A detailed discussion of the interaction of the Hindu mystic tradition and Sufism shows the polarity between the rigidity of the orthodox and the flexibility of the popular Islam in South Asia. Treating the cult of saints as a universal and all pervading phenomenon embracing the life of the region in all its aspects, the analysis includes politics, social and family life, interpersonal relations, gender problems and national psyche. The author uses a multidimensional approach to the subject: a historical, religious and literary analysis of sources is combined with an anthropological study of the rites and rituals of the veneration of the shrines and the description of the architecture of the tombs."
"Sufism is often regarded as standing mystically aloof from its wider cultural settings. By turning this perspective on its head, Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century reveals the politics and poetry of Indian Sufism through the study of Islamic sainthood in the midst of a cosmopolitan Indian society comprising migrants, soldiers, litterateurs and princes. Placing the mystical traditions of Indian Islam within their cultural contexts, the study focuses on the shrines of four Sufi saints in the neglected Deccan region and their changing roles under the rule of the Mughals, the Nizams of Haydarabad and, after 1947, the Indian nation... Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century is essential reading for scholars with interests in Sufism, Islam, India and cultural studies."
"Sufism, Its Saints and Shrines is the first authoritative and detailed account of Sufism as it exists in India and Pakistan, and as such fills a colossal gap in the study of Sufi mystical movement. The author was at one time member of the Qadari order, a well known Sufi order. He compressed in this book a fascinating material starting with the early history of Sufism and ending with an account of its religious order and some of its principle saints. The highlight of this comprehensive work is the detailed account of the main Sufi traditional orders which have not been covered with the same authenticity in any other book. It provides information about the saints, their practices and thoughts. It is an effort to place before the readers, in systematic form, the varied and extensive thought from the original sources of Urdu and Persian literature."
"This multi-sited ethnography considers the impact of contested definitions on the experiences and representations of Sindhi Hindus. Ramey recognizes how the dominant definitions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism challenge communities who defy such understandings and analyzes the ways Sindhi Hindus have established their unconventional practices and heritage in the context of their diaspora. By analyzing concrete examples of the creation of a heritage in the context of migration, this book considers the implications of representations of religions for Sindhi Hindus and other similar communities."
"The book, Yogis in Silence, the Great Sufi Masters provides a glimpse of the life and conduct of some of the great Sufi Masters from 8th Century AD onward. These great Masters lived like ordinary family persons, hiding their true self from the public. They believed, Perfection is not in exhibition of miraculous powers, but perfection is to sit among people, sell and buy, marry and have children; and yet never leave the presence of the Almighty even for one moment. The essence of their teachings is: desires are the world. Desires cause the worries and worries result into instability of mind."
"The book, Sufism Beyond Religion is an attempt to distinguish between spirituality and religion, not by compring the two, but by describing how one could acquire spirituality, no matter what religion one follows. Sufism is the ancient wisdom, which is not confined to any particular religion and, therefore, Sufism cuts across the barriers of religion. The author has thrown a great deal of illuminating light on various points on the mysticism free from religious limitations, with special reference to certain such saints, who meditated for human integration and opposed every division of humanity in the name of God."
Impact of Sufism in India (58 Pages)____________________________
Sufism in India (27 Pages)____________________________
Sufi Movement in Medieval India (3 Pages)
Sufi Teachings of Osho