Maulana Rumi's Masnavi in Urdu and Sindhi

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Book 6 - Urdu - 542 pages

مثنوی معنوی - فارسی شاعری کی مشہورترین کتاب
مکمل: چھ حصے
مصنف: مولانا جلال الدین بلخی رومی
فارسی متن مع اردو ترجمہ: مولانا قاضی سجاد حسین

Masnavi of Rumi in Urdu - 18 Volumes

The following Urdu translations of Maulana Rumi's Masnavi Manavi are courtesy of the outstanding blog on Rumi in Urdu and English: Masnavi Rumi
  1. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 1
  2. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 2
  3. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 3
  4. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 4
  5. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 5
  6. Masnavi of Rumi - Book 6

"The Masnavi is Maulana Rumi’s greatest poetic work, composed during the last years of his life. The Masnavi is divided into six books and contains thousands of rhyming couplets (a type of poetry called, in Arabic, “Mathnawî”) with stories, ethical teachings, and deeply spiritual Sufi teachings. The Masnavi is deeply permeated with Quranic meanings and references, which is why it has been so famous and well-loved for so many centuries all across the Muslim World. The Masnavi of Rumi was called by Maulana Jami [the eminent 15th century Persian Sufi poet] as "The Quran in the Persian Language". By common consent, Rumi's Masnavi ranks among the world's greatest masterpieces of religious literature.

The Masnavi - also written as Mesnavi or Mathnawi in English - is a poetic form in Persian, Ottoman and Urdu literature. This poetic form was born in Persia and had a patronage of Ottoman Sultans for centuries. This is evident by the fact that most of the Masnavi that are still available for research are either in Persian or in Persian lashed Urdu. With the advent of Muslim rule in India, this poetic form got a new home in the courts of Delhi and Deccan Sultanates where it flourished for centuries before they were replaced by other popular poetic forms such as Ghazal and Nazam. The Masnavi consists of an indefinite number of couplets, with the rhyme scheme AA, BB and CC...etc. 

The subject matter of Masnavi is varied and ranges from love and courtship to religion and philosophy. There is no cap on meter and a Masnavi can incorporate one or all the 7 meters that are available in Persian and Urdu poetry. Usually, a Masnavi has no limit in terms of verses and can range from 24 to 24000 verses at the same time. The most well known Masnavi is the Masnavi Manavi or The Spiritual Couplets of Profound Meanings. Masnavi Manavi was composed by the 13th century Persian Sufi poet, Jalaluddin Muhammad Balkhi Rumi. The Masnavi of Rumi is famous throughout the world for its detailed discussions on contemporary philosophies and religions. It consists of six books of poems containing more than 25,000 verses that are primarily denoted to intra as well as inter-religious discussions. These discussions later melt in to discussions of philosophies."

مثنوی مولانائے روم

م ۔ 1273 مولانا جلال الدین محمد بن محمد بن الحسین الخطیبی رومی کی گراں بہا فارسی تصنیف ہے۔ اس کے چھ دفتر یعنی جلدیں ہیں اور ان میں تصوف کے رموز ونکات، قرآنی علوم اور معرفت خداوندی کے مسائل، تشبیہوں اور تمثیلوں کے ذریعہ بیان کیے گئے ہیں۔ یہ مختلف ممالک میں کئی بار طبع ہوئی۔ اس کی متعدد شرحیں لکھی گئیں اور تلخیصبھی، ہندوستان کے مشائخ کی خانقاہوں میں بھی یہ مقبول رہی ہے۔ 1258 سے مولانا روم کے وصال کے وقت 1272 تک یہ لکھی جاتی رہی اور آخری حکایت ناتمام رہ گئی۔

مثنوی مولانا روم روحانی تعلیم و تربیت کی ایک بنیادی کتاب ہے اور فارسی کے ہر صوفی شاعر ادیب نے اس کا اثر قبول کیا ہے۔ مولانا نے عرفان و معنویت کے دقیق اسرار کو استدلال کے ذریعہ نہیں بلکہ استعارہ و کنایہ اور تشبیہ و تمثیل کے ذریعہ بیان کیا۔ اس سلسلے میں انھوں نے دلچسپ حکایات و امثال سے کام لیا ہے۔ درحقیقت حدیث دیگراں کے پردے میں انھوں نے سِر دلبراں کو پیش کیا ہے۔ اس ضمن میں بعض ناروا حکایتیں بھی آ گئی ہیں لیکن مولانا کا مقصد حقیقت تک رہنمائی کے سوا اور کچھ نہیں ہے۔ دور حاضر کے عظیم شاعر علامہ اقبال، مولانا روم کو ہی اپنا روحانی پیشوا مانتے ہیں۔

"Hindus praise me in the terms of India
And Sindhis praise me in terms from Sindh.
Not for magnificats do I make them pure
They themselves become pure and precious.
We do not look to language or to words
We look inside to find intent and rapture."
Maulana Rumi - Masnavi 2: 1757 - 59.

"The Masnavi of Rumi reached the Indian Subcontinent in late 13th century - in 1276 A.D., three years after Rumi's death. The Masnavi was taken to India by one of his disciples, Ahmad Rumi who belonged to the Suhrawardiyah and Qadiriyah Sufi Orders. One eminent Sufi of the Suhrawardiyah Sufi Order, Sheikh Bahauddin Zikariya of Multan was a contemporary of Rumi and was very much influenced by his teachings.

In the Indian Subcontinent, Rūmī was also appreciated among the Naqshbandiyyah Sufi Order already in the 15th century and his influence has grown ever since. Not only have numerous commentaries been written upon him, such as those of ‘Abd al-Latīf al-‘Abbāsī and Shāh Mīr Muhammad Nūrallāh al-Ahrārī, but also there developed in the Subcontinent, as well as in Persia and the Ottoman worlds, a particular musical genre which is associated solely with the singing of the Masnavi, a form that again remains popular to this day. More particularly certain of the Sufis of that region, especially Shāh ‘Abd al-Latīf, the great Sindhi poet and mystic who was also an outstanding musician, may be said to be direct emanations of Rūmī's spirituality in the Indian world. It is not without reason that many have compared Shāh 'Abd al-Latīf's Risalo with the Masnavi.

From the 17th century onward, one can easily trace the influence of Rumi's Masnavi in the writings of Indian scholars like Shah Waliullah, Syed Ahmad Barlevi and Shah Ismail Shaheed. Their disciples, such as Shah Rafiq, Shah Muhammad Ishaq, Mufti Sadaruddin, Shah Ghulam Ali, Mufti Ilahi Bakhsh, Mevlana Fazal Haq Khairabadi and others further developed their ideas. Thereafter the teachings of Syed Ahmad Khan, poetry of Altaf Hussain Hali and writings of Maulana Shibli and others belonging to the Aligarh school of thought are also founded on Rumi's Masnavi. 

Muhammad Iqbal, the renowned 20th century philosopher, poet and politician of Indian Subcontinent, was also immensely inspired by the teachings of Maulana Rumi. The famous long Urdu poem by Allama Iqbal is titled “Sage Rumi and Indian Disciple” which consists of an interesting dialogue between Iqbal and Rumi. Some extracts are as follows:

Indian Disciple:  A stream of  blood flows from the seeing eye because at the hands of modern knowledge, Religion is tattered and torn. Can this be remedied?

Sage Rumi:  Knowledge used exclusively for material gain bites you like a serpent. But as a purifier of the inner self, it becomes your best friend.

Indian Disciple: O leader of sensitive lovers! I remember the exalted dictum embodied in your verse: 

Mind, strings and frame of the instrument are dry,  

yet where from emerges the song which reminds one of the Beloved?

The  modern age is intoxicated by the  song, but it does not derive any  pleasure as it is transitory, uncertain and unaware of the joy of presence before the Beloved. Thus how can it know the secret as to who is the Beloved and wherefrom emerges the song, Alas! Despite the light of Arts and Sciences in Europe, the song is plunged into the abyss of darkness instead of being elevated to the heavens.

Sage Rumi: Everyone is not capable of enjoying the song. Figs are a fruit which are not relished by all birds.

Indian Disciple: I have absorbed the philosophies of the East and the West.  Yet my soul remains  troubled and agitated with aches and pains.

Sage Rumi: Incompetent healers have made you ill.  Consult a physician who takes motherly care of you. 

Indian Disciple: Alas! The Young man who gets university education has been hunted down by the European wizard.

Sage Rumi: A chick which has not grown its own wings is bound to be torn to pieces by the cat if it attempts to fly.

Indian  Disciple:  Should the body be preferred to the soul?

Sage Rumi: At night a counterfeit coin gives the appearance of gold. Therefore gold must await the light of day to reveal its authenticity.

Indian Disciple: Tell me what is the reality of Man? I am only a speck of dust; transform me into a moon or a sun.

Sage Rumi:  Outwardly, Man is so insignificant that even a mosquito can make his life miserable. But inwardly, he has the potential to dominate the seven heavens.

Indian Disciple:  The brightness of  your thought can illuminate the dust.  Tell me whether the object of Man is to seek Reality through perception or through vision?

Sage Rumi: Man in substance is vision whereas the rest of him is only crust, and vision means enlightenment of the eye with the beauty of the Beloved.

Indian Disciple:  The East is alive due to the warmth of your songs. Tell me what causes nations to perish?

Sage Rumi: Nations perish when they mistake pebbles for perfume."

In her groundbreaking work, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, the incomparable German-born scholar of Rumi, late Prof. Annemarie Schimmel gives us a remarkable insight into the enormous influence of Maulan Rumi on the Indian Subcontinent:

"In India, the love of Maulana Rumi was by no means restricted to the Sufi Orders. We may say without exaggeration that the Masnavi was accepted as authoritative throughout medieval India. The emperor Akbar (ruled 1556-1605) loved the Masnavi, and we read that the poet Sheyda at Shah Jehan's court (ruled 1627-1658) 'quoted in self-defense the authority of Maulana Rumi' and was released. The heir apparent of the Mughal Empire, Shah Jehan's son, Dara Shikoh (d. 1659) was a great admirer of Rumi, so much so that he copied a Masnavi of Rumi with his own hand. Dara's younger brother Aurangzeb (ruled 1658-1707), who persecuted and eventually executed him, was likewise fond of Rumi's poetry to such an extent that his theological instructor, Maula Jivan, composed an interpretation of the Masnavi. One of his courtiers had told Dara Shikoh's mystical leader, Maula Shah Badakhshi:

I have often had the honor of reading before Aurangzeb passages from the Masnavi of Jalaluddin Rumi. The Emperor was often so touched that he shed tears.
Indo-Pakistani sources contain much information about famous Masnavi-Khwan's [Masnavi Reciter] who excelled in the recitation of Rumi's verses. Among them we may mention a certain Sayyid Sa`dollah Purabi (d. 1726) who wrote a resala-ye chehel beyt-e Mathnavi:  just as the pious Muslim selected forty traditions from the Prophet, thus the mystics chose forty verses from the 'Koran in Pahlavi tongue' and commented upon them. The anthologies of Persian poetry written during the 17th and early 18th centuries supply us with allusions to Rumi and quotations from his work in the lyrical effusions of almost every major and minor poet. When the Kashmiri poet Safya, who wrote poetical pieces in the meter of Malana's Masnavi, tells us that:

The Masnavi-ye Maulavi-ye Ma`navi grants new life to one who has been dead for a hundred years,
he is perfectly in harmony with many other Indo-Muslim poets who praised the Masnavi as source of inspiration, or imitated it in various ways. The biographical handbooks speak of many poets who 'were possessed of an excessive love for the Masnavi', and the outstanding Persian poet of the 17th century, Sa'eb, wrote quite a number of poems in imitation of Rumi's ghazals. Since it had become fashionable to write naziras, 'counter-poems', to classical poems, the poets not only tried to imitate and emulate Hafez, Khaqani and Anvari, but also Maulana Rumi. The last great representative of the Indian Style, and most admired poet of the 'Tajik' tradition, Baydel (d. 1721) is no exception to this rule; his variation upon Rumi's little ghazal:

From every piece of my heart you can make a nightingale . . .

is very successful; besides, allusions to the reed-flute, to the fire which it casts into the reed-bed, and to other images from Rumi's poetry are found in Baydel's Divan, though often in very distorted form. His whole world view, centering around the idea of a constant upward movement of everything created, bears similarities with Rumi's dynamic world view; but these seeming similarities still await scholarly proof.

That Rumi's Masnavi inspired many poems is well known: the refugee from Afghanistan to the court of Sind, Jehangir Hashimi (d. 1539) offers a new variation of Rumi's famous story on prayer in his Masnavi mazhar al-athar. And when, one-and-a-half centuries later, Aurangzeb's daughter, the accomplished poetess Zeb un-Nisa asked her poet friends to compose a Masnavi in the style of Rumi's poetry, this should not be taken as an isolated instance; in fact, there were many such imitations produced around 1700. Again, about a hundred years later, a Hindu writer called Anandagana Khwosh composed a Masnavi-ye kajkolah in the style of Rumi's Mathnavi (1794); it is important to note that he inserted in it the story of Dara Shikoh's meeting with the Hindu sage Baba Lal Das to remind his readers of the attempt at reconciliation of Muslim and Hindu mystical tradition by the unlucky Mughal prince. To glance through A. Sprenger's Catalogue of the manuscripts of the king of Oudh (1854) reveals not only how many copies of the Masnavi were found in the libraries of Indian Muslim kings, but even more the extent to which Rumi's work influenced and was imitated by numerous early 19th century writers in both Persian and Urdu.

It goes without saying that Indian scholars and mystics wrote numerous commentaries of the Masnavi; most of them date from the 17th century, the period of greatest scholarly and poetical activity in the Subcontinent. We could easily enumerate a dozen or more learned commentaries written during this period, besides special glossaries, and anthologies made from Rumi's poetry. The amount of material is probably even larger than is known at present, since a thorough investigation into the catalogs and particularly into the treasures of uncatalogued libraries in India and Pakistan would give even more information about direct or indirect influences of Rumi's work on Indo-Muslim thought. Suffice it to mention that the most famous commentary of the Masnavi, that of `Abd al-`Ali surnamed Bahr al-`olum was composed in Lucknow in the late 18th century; it has been considered by Western scholars the best introduction into Rumi's theology. The useful analytical index known as mir'at al-Masnavi and compiled by Telmidh Hoseyn, should not be left out in this connection; it gives an excellent survey of the contents of the Masnavi
Of special interest is the survival of Rumi's poetry in the Indus valley, in Sind, the first part of the Subcontinent that came under Muslim rule (711). The above mentioned poet Jehangir Hashimi, though of Persian extraction, lived at the court of the Arghun rulers in Thatta, Sind; after him there came a great number of poets who 'kept warm the market of Divine Unity' by reciting the Masnavi in this province. Sind had been noted for the interest of its inhabitants in saint-worship and mystical poetry, and the historians enumerate the names of those who indulged in the recitation of Rumi's work which was regarded as 'the highway for those who attain Divine Reality'. Some of them were able to recite the Masnavi 'with sad voice so beautifully that all the listeners were brought to tears.'
In Sind, as in other parts of Indo-Pakistan, the admiration for the Masnavi was not restricted to a single mystical order. Not only the Chishtiyya but the Qadiriyya and the Naqshbandiyya relied largely upon this book. It is told that one of the 18th century leaders of the Naqshbandiyya in Sind, Mohammad Zaman-e awwal, gave away his whole library and kept for himself only three books, namely the Koran, the Masnavi, and the Divan-e Shams Tabrizi.

Maulana Rumi's influence on mystical poetry in the Indus valley is best revealed in the work of Shah `Abdul Latif of Bhit (d. 1752). His Risalo in Sindhi is for everyone who speaks Sindhi, be he Hindu or Muslim, the textbook of his Weltanschauung; verses from this collection of mystical poetry are still stock-in-trade in the country. Even the foreigner has to admit that the Risalo belongs to the most touching poetical expressions of Islamic mysticism, and that Shah Latif's way of blending simple Sindhi folktales with high flown mystical speculations is remarkable.
Lilaram Watanmal, one of the first (Hindu) authors to write about the mystical poet of Bhit expressed the opinion that the Koran and the Masnavi were always in the poet's hand, together with some Sindhi mystical poems, and It is related that Nur Mohammad Kalhora, the then ruler of Sind, from whom Shah Latif had become estranged, won back the poet's favor by presenting him with a fine copy of the Masnavi.

Fifty years later, the British civil servant H. T. Sorley, who has devoted a useful book to the Sindhi poet, went so far as to think that Shah `Abdul Latif's poetry is nothing but 'an Indian Muslim development of the philosophy of Jalaluddin Rumi' and 'that it would have been enough for the author of the Risalo to be familiar with the Masnavi alone.' 

Shah `Abdul Latif has inserted into his poetry the famous motif of the blind men and the elephant, and a couple of other allusions to the Masnavi. The most touching instance is that in Sur Sasui Abri (I, 8):

Those, in whom is thirst-water is thirsty for them.

This quotation from the Masnavi (I 1741) points to the truth that God and Man act together were not the Source of Love thirsty for Man's longing, how could Man dare to long for this unfathomable source of Life?

In a long sequence of verses in Sur Yaman Kalyan (V lo-15) the Sindhi poet openly acknowledges his indebtedness to Rumi. Every verse begins with the statement: 
'This is Maulana Rumi's idea . . .' and then explains theories of unity and plurality, of love and longing. It is also known that Shah Latif was on very friendly terms with Shah Isma`il Sufi (d. 1732) who was famous as reciter of the Masnavi. Among the later poets of Sind, all of whom knew Rumi's work very well, we may mention Bedil of Rohri (d. 1872) who read the Masnavi with one of the great mystical leaders of Sind, Pir `Ali Gowhar Shah Asghar whose family has played an important role in the history of Sufism in the Indus valley. The historians tell us that Bedil was comforted during his illness by the recitation of the Mathnavi, and his poetry in Sindhi, Siraiki, Urdu and Persian contains numerous allusions to Rumi's verses and to Shams-e Tabriz. He has even composed a strange book called Masnavi-ye delkosha which consists of a combination of Koranic quotations. Prophetic traditions, verses from the Masnavi and verses from Shah `Abdul Latif's Risalo: these four elements were put together to show the way of higher mysticism.

How strong the love for Maulana still is among the Sindhis can be understood from the fact that beginning in 1943, an excellent Sindhi verse translation of the complete Masnavi was written in Hyderabad/Sind; the author of this work, called Ashraf al-`olum, was Din Mohammad Adib, a teacher in Hyderabad (d. 1975). 

Similar is the situation in the Punjab. At least two commentaries on the Masnavi in Punjabi have been printed, one of them being in Punjabi verse by Pir Imam Shah (1911), which comprises, however, only a small part of the 26,000 verses of the original. Another Punjabi verse translation, by Maulana Mohammad Shahoddin, appeared in Lahore in 1939.
As to Pashto I know of a poetical version of the Masnavi which is being prepared by Molavi `Abdul Jabbar Bangash from Kohat, and by Abdul Akhar Khan 'Akbar' of Peshawar. In the poetry of the Pathans we find as many allusions to Rumi's work as in the other languages of Muslim India and Pakistan or Turkey.

The regional languages of the Subcontinent contain a large amount of material taken from the Masnavi. It would be surprising if the literary language proper of the Indian Muslims, viz. Urdu, would not contain allusions to or translations from the work of Rumi. How widely Maulana's work was read is illustrated by the fact that even the satirist Sauda (d. 1792), one of the 'four pillars of Urdu' in the 18th century, composed a very little Masnavi on a verse of Rumi about all-embracing unity. That the great mystical poet of Delhi, Mir Dard (d. 1785). following his father Nasir Mohammad `Andalib's example, quotes profusely from Rumi goes without saying. Even in the poetry of the last great master of Urdu and Indo-Persian poetry, Mirza Ghalib (d. 1869) some images can be traced back to Rumi through the long chain of poets like Dard, Bedil, and `Urfi. Urdu translations of the Masnavi are of course available. Munshi Mosta`an `Ali's poetical version, Bagh-e Iram, was completed in 1826 and has been printed several times. The most recent, and probably most successful, Urdu verse translation, which like every good version in the Islamic languages preserves the original meter, is the Pirahan-e Yusofi by Mohammad Yusof `Ali Shah Chishti, lithographed in 1943. Its name 'Joseph's Shirt' (besides alluding to the author's proper name) invokes the image of the healing quality of Joseph's garment which, being part of him, conveyed sight to his blind father: should not the translation of the Masnavi brighten the reader's eyes, filling them with spiritual insight?
The Indian Muslims also showed interest in Rumi's prose work Fihi Ma Fihi [Discourses of Rumi]. `Abdur Rashid Tabassum translated this book into Urdu in our century, after `Abdol Majid Daryabadi had undertaken the task of editing it for the first time in 1922. He received inspiration for this work from the poet-philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal, the 'spiritual father of Pakistan'. Iqbal himself is no doubt the most fascinating example of Rumi's influence on a contemporary Muslim poet and thinker."

Hindustan and Hindus in Rumi's Poetry

In his informative article, 'Persian Language and Literature in India', Professor A.R.Momin explains the historical origins of the word Hindu: "It is interesting to note that the word Hindu is of Persian origin. The Persepolis and Naqsh-e-Rustam inscriptions of Emperor Darius (d. 486 B.C.) refer to the frontier regions of the Indus as Hindush. The term was later used in Arabic geographical and historical sources."

Although Rumi's magnum opus, Masnavi was brought to Hindustan in 1276 A.D.-- three years after his death by one of his disciples, Ahmad Rumi, the Persian language already had deep roots in India as it was first introduced to Hindustan by the Persian emperor, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in the tenth century. The great eleventh century Persian scholar and philosopher, Al-Biruni is widely credited with being the first Persian scholar who not only wrote extensively on India, but also helped translating and popularizing India's rich civilization and diverse culture and customs throughout the Persian Empire. Al-Biruni's most important works on Hindustan (India) are:

1. Critical study of what India says, whether accepted by reason or refused.

2. Researches on India.

The Persian language reached its highest zenith in the rich and absorbing culture of India around the 16th century when the Mughal Dynasty adopted Persian as the official language of the royal court. In Urdu language alone, over 60% of its vocabulary is comprised of Persian words, and the Hindi language contains over 40% of Persian words. Poetry of the great Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Rumi, Hafiz Shirazi, Sa'di, Omar Khayam, and also that of Indian-born Persian-speaking Sufi poets, Masud Sa'd Salman, Baydel Dehlavi, Mirza Ghalib, Iqbal Lahori, and Amir Khusro form the foundation bases of 'Hindustani' or 'Hindi Style' of Persian Poetry in Indian Subcontinent.

The incomparable 14th century Persian Sufi poet, Hafiz Shirazi has beautifully captured Persian's influence on India in these verses:

All the Parrots of India will become sweet talkers

From the sweetness of this sweet Farsi
That's being shipped to Bengal!
Hafiz Shirazi - my translation

شکر شکن شوند همه طوطیان هند
این قند پارسی که به بنگا له می رود
 حافظ شيرازي

The Sun saw her Hindu black mole

And whispered to its heart:
"I wish I was also good-looking like that Hindu!"
Hafiz Shirazi - my translation

خورشید چو آن خال سیه دید به دل گفت

ای کاج که من بودمی آن هندوی مقبل
 حافظ شيرازي

Either you learn the elephant trainers' ways

Or stop dreaming of Hindustan 
Like an Indian elephant!
Hafiz Shirazi - my translation

با رسوم پیلبانان یاد گیر
یا مده هندوستان با یاد پیل
حافظ شيرازي

The outstanding 17th century India-born Sufi poet, Baydel Dehlavi has also alluded to Hindustan and Hindus in these mystical verses:

What's the reason o wise sages

For being so interested in India?
The destiny will ultimately make
The mirror needing the ashes.
Baydel Dehlavi - my translation

روبه هند آوردن صاحبد لان ازبهر چیست؟
روز گار آیینه را محتاج خا کستر کند
 بيدل دهلوي

Though feeling thirsty and with dry lips,

You must let go of meeting up 
With the Hindu Lovers of India.
There is no greater shame 
For a Brahman-born Hindu
Than kissing an out-caste 
Or an Untouchable Hindu.
Baydel Dehlavi - my translation

تشنه‌ لب باید گذشت از وصل معشوقان هند

هیچ ننگی در برهمن‌ زادگان چون بوس نیست
بيدل دهلوي

Fascinated by the debating talents 

Of the wandering Persian Sufi Dervishes in India,
The native Hindustanis started imitating them.
Baydel Dehlavi - my translation

از صنعت محاوره لولیان فارس
هندوستانیان تمغل خزیده‌اند
بيدل دهلوي

The bad luck lover always endures

Because Spring is the season for love.
In our charming India,
I provide the knowledge about Kashmir.
Baydel Dehlavi - my translation

سیاه‌ بخت محبت بهارها دارد
به هند نازفروش سوادکشمیرم
بيدل دهلوي

The eminent 11th century Persian poet, Ferdowsi has also repeatedly mentioned Hindustan or India in his magnum opus, Shah-Namah or The Epic of Kings:

From China to Hindustan (India),

The bright-eyed Idols are being worshiped.
Ferdowsi- my translation

ستوده ز هندوستان تا به چین

میان بتان در چو روشن نگین
فردوسی - شاهنامه

I should just abandon this magical land

and reach the borders of Hindustan (India).
Ferdowsi- my translation

ببرم پی از خاک جادوستان

شوم تا سر مرز هندوستان
فردوسی - شاهنامه

The great 13th century Persian poet, Sadi Shirazi has also this to say about Hindus and Hindustan:

If my Hindu friend accepts my friendship,

I'll be forever indebted to my Hindustani friend.
Sadi Shirazi - my translation

دوست به هندوی خود گر بپذیرد مرا

گوش من و تا به حشر حلقه هندوی دوست
سعدی شیرازی

The Land of India and entire Turkey will be yours,

If your Turkish eyes appreciate her Hindu black hair!
Sadi Shirazi - my translation

دیار هند و اقالیم ترک بسپارند

چو چشم ترک تو بینند و زلف هندو را
سعدی شیرازی

The highly respected 12th century Persian poet, Sanai Ghaznavi also mentions Hindus and Hindustan in his poetry:

It doesn't really surprise me that 

You broke up with me and cut up my heart.
You are a Hindu and Hindi Blade cuts too deep!
Sanai Ghaznavi - my translation

نشگفت که ببریدی و دل برکندی

تو هندویی و برنده باشد هندی
سنایی غزنوی

The Hindu King will be

your representative in India.
The Sindhi splendor is due 
to your efforts in Sindh Province.
Sanai Ghaznavi - my translation

ملک هند نایب تو به هند

مهتر سند یافته ز تو سند
سنایی غزنوی 

Thanks to these wise words 

Which flow like the clear water,
Even Chipal, the Hindu King of India,
Has become a seeker of the Truth.
Sanai Ghaznavi - my translation

زین سخنهای خوش چو آب زلال

گشت طالب به هند در چیپال
سنایی غزنوی

The highly regarded 12th century Persian poet, Anwari shows his knowledge of Hindu Love, Hindustan, and the Self-immolation Practices of the Hindus in these verses:

A Hindu girl with crooked eyelashes

Has made me wait in line for her
Like a tulip planted in a single row.
She's burning me alive in the fire of sadness
Like the Hindus who burn themselves in fire.
Whether it's nourishing the tulips or burning in the fire,
Hindu Ladies are truly experts in those fields!
Like a good female Hindu Lover, 
She's also pushing hard on those two fronts. 
O Lord, please make her stop this carnage! 
Though a Hindu's initial relationship 
Might go between the warm and the cool,
Hindu Love is a hundred times warmer and more passionate.
Though Hindu Love burns deeper than the rest,
I'm getting used to having my poor fingers 
Constantly burning for the Love of a Hindu!
Anwari - my translation

هندویی کز مژگان کرد مرا لاله قطار
سوخت از آتش غم جان مرا هندووار
لاله راندن به دم و سوختن اندر آتش
هندوان دست ببردند بدین هر دو نگار
هندوانه دو عمل پیش گرفت او یارب
داری از هر دو عمل یار مرا برخوردار
هندوان را چه اگر گرم و تر آمد به مزاج
عشقشان در دل از آن گرمتر آمد صدبار
عشق هندو به همه حال بود سوزان‌تر
که در انگشت بود عادت سوزانی نار

The eminent 10th century Persian poet, Abu Sayed Abul-Khair poetically explains the Hindu Wisdom and Mysticism in these verses:

A Philosopher said: In Hindustan (India), 

I once saw a Wise Hindu Teaching
Engraved inside a Hindu Temples of Idol.
I asked him: So what was that Hindu wisdom quote?
He responded: "Man is like the stone and the glass,
While the wheels of the universe resemble a mad man! 
This world of ours worships the material, yet
The material world is worth nothing to Almighty.
How could an intelligent person possibly
Fall in love with this materialistic world?"
Abu Sayed Abul-Khair - my translation

فیلسوفی گفت: اندر جانب هندوستان
حکمتی دیدم نوشته بر در بت خانه‌ای
گفتم: آن حکمت چه حکمت بود؟ گفت: این حکمتست
آدمی را سنگ و شیشه چرخ چون دیوانه‌ای
نعمت دنیا و دنیا نزد حق بیگانه است
هیچ عاقل مهر ورزد با چنین بیگانه‌ای؟
ابوسعید ابوالخیر

The eminent 14th century India-born Sufi poet and musician, Amir Khusro Dehlavi offers the following patriotic tribute to his homeland, Hindustan:

My country, India is the heaven on earth.

Here is why I'm making that bold claim:
Since India has signs of Paradise embedded on its soil,
God Himself walks comfortably upon its sacred lands.
If you think India is not a Paradise,
Then why it's a garden for Heavenly Indian Peacocks?
You might find lots of lands out there similar to India,
But they are all imperfect unlike my Perfect India.
Amir Khusro Dehlavi - my translation

کشور هند است بهشتی به زمین

حجتش اینک به رخ صفحه ببین
هند چو از خلد نشان بود درو
ز امر خدایش قدم آسود درو
گر نه بهشت است همین هند چرا
از پی طاووس جنان گشت سرا
لیک جز از هند دگر یافت محل
زانکه همه نیش زدن داشت عمل
امیرخسرو دهلوی

"Sufism influenced the poetry of India; but in this case there was influence on both sides, and the Sufis also borrowed some of the Vedantic and Buddhistic ideas, especially in regard to their conception of Divine absorption. There is an amazing similarity between Upanishadic wisdom and what Rumi has said. Both stand for annihilation of the pseudo `I'; giving birth to the birth-less. There is also one universal truth in the Upanishad that finds resonance in Rumi's poetry. In Rumi's Sufi poetry, there is a phrase in honor of the 9th century God-annihilated Persian Sufi martyr of Love, Mansoor Hallaj's famous cry of 'Ana ul-Haq' which means 'I am Truth'. In the Upanishads, there is 'Asmi' or 'He am I' which means 'I am the Truth'. Both of these mark the end of the individual's journey to the Ego-lessness of surrender."

Rumi's following verses also certainly point to the belief that the Sufis inculcated certain ideas from the Vedanta Philosophy: 

Sufism is control of the faculties

and observance of the breaths.
Sufism is purification of the soul
and constant dusting of the inner mirror.
Sufism is the annihilation of Self
and eternal union with the Beloved (God).
Sufism is letting go of your material existence
and abiding forever in mystical non-existence.
Sufism is searching deep within
for inner meanings of your own faith,
and a lifelong spiritual journey
towards the final union with the One and Only.
Sufism is the contemplation that travels
to the highest Divine Throne.
Sufism is a far-seeing mystical gaze.
Sufism is surrendering your soul
to the care of inviolability of Divine Love.
Sufism is a smooth and illuminated path.
Sufism is this highly spiritual and mystical way
to reach the exalted Throne of our Friend,
the Almighty God.
That’s Sufism, and nothing more.

The Hindu belief in reincarnation is well known. But the following verses by Rumi on reincarnation, as he describes the process of evolution through reincarnation - from mineral and plant to animal and human and then to angel-hood and beyond - are strikingly similar to 'Karma-Samsara' reincarnation concepts of Hinduism as recorded in the Upanishads.

I died as mineral and became a plant,
I died as plant and rose to animal,
I died as animal and became human.
Why should I fear?
When was I less by dying?
Yet once more I shall die as human.
Reborn, I will soar with the angels above.
And when I sacrifice my angel soul
I shall be more than mortal mind can know.
Oh, let me not exist!
For non-existence proclaims in organ tones:
'To Him We All Shall Return.'
Rumi - Masnavi-Book  III: 3901-3906."            

Reading through Rumi's monumental works, Masnavi and Divan, one can clearly grasp his fascination with the great Land of the Hindus, Hindustan or India. Rumi's deep knowledge and insight into the sacred Hindu scriptures, the Vedantic and Buddhistic concepts, the ancient Indian mystical culture; particularly the wandering Yogis and meditative sages, are repeatedly manifested throughout his vast poetry works, notably in Masnavi. In his Divan and Masnavi, Rumi has made numerous references to Hindu sages and mystics, the Hindu Temples, the Hinduism/Buddhism concepts, the long beautiful black hair of the Hindus, the beautiful black eyes of the Hindus, as well as the metaphoric expressions of a 'Nostalgic Indian elephant dreaming of beautiful Jungles of Hindustan', or a 'Nostalgic and homesick Indian elephant breaking the chains and returning to his homeland, Hindustan or India.'

Here are some examples of Rumi's references to Hindus and Hindustan:

Did you hear that in Hindustan (India),

A wise Sufi once saw a group of Hindu mystics
Returning from their long spiritual journey,
Starving, exhausted, and completely naked...
Rumi - my translation

شنیدی تو که درهندوستان

دید دانایی گروهی دوستان
گرسنه مانده شده بی برگ و عور
می رسیدند از سفراز راه دور

The old Hindu Sage has come over
To pay a visit to our Sufi Convent.
Bestow upon him and the entire Hindustan
The very best of your hospitality.
Rumi - my translation

شیخ هندو به خانقاه آمد

خاص او گیر و جمله هندوستان

God's grace touched the old Hindu Sage

And out of sheer joy and gratitude,
The Hindu Mystic went into wild ecstasy,
Jumping up and down like a fish.
Rumi - my translation

به پیر هندوی بگزشت لطفش

چو ماهی شد پیر از خوش عزرای

From those beautiful Hindu black eyes
And those long Hindu black hair,
Learn o inhabitants of Hindustan
The art of being a Hindu!
Rumi - my translation

زآن چشم سیاه او زان زلف سیه تارش

الا ای اهل هندوستان بیاموزید هندویی

From the stunning look of 
Your Hindustani black hair,
Men are left speechless
And women are screaming out loud!
Rumi - my translation

ای زهندوستان زلفت رهزنان بر خواسته
نعره از مردان رد واززنان برخواسته

Look at that smiling Hindu face
Looking like a sugar field!
Look at those beautiful black eyes
Looking like the stunning eyes of the Hindus!
Rumi - my translation

روی آن خوش نگر چو قندستانی
و آن چشم خوشش نگر چو هندستانی

If God has bestowed life, Knowledge, and intellect 
Upon the Hindus Gentlemen,
Then He must have also bestowed
Beauty, virtue, and chastity
Upon the beautiful Hindu Princesses!
Rumi - my translation

عمروذکا و زیرکی داد به هندوان اگر

حسن و جمال و دلبری داد به شاهدختن

For the Hindus,
The word Hindustan is praiseworthy.
For the Sindhis,
The word Sindh is praiseworthy.
Rumi - my translation

هندوان را اصطلاح هند مدح
سندیان را اصطلاح سند مدح

Warn the Hindu Magicians

So they don't trespass
The boundaries of their magical acts!
Rumi - my translation

فرمای به هندوان جادو
کز حد نبرند ساحری را

The Hindi Dagger of separation
Is undoubtedly very sharp.
But the Hindi Love is
Even more sharper!
Rumi - my translation

تیغ هندی هجر برانست
لیک هندی عشق برانتر

My soul is a Hindu
and my heart, a Sufi Convent.
Out in the open,
there is no war and peace
between us.
Rumi - my translation

نفس هندوست و خانقه دل من

از برون نیست جنگ و آرامش

He is so fluent in Hindi

That he sounds like a native Hindu.
But his inspirational language
Has always been Arabic.
Rumi - my translation

زبان هندوی گوید که خود از هندوانستی
زبان وحییان او زازل وجه العرب بوده

As I've previously mentioned, Rumi has beautifully and cleverly used the the metaphoric expressions of a " Nostalgic Indian elephant dreaming of Hindustan", or a "Nostalgic and homesick Indian elephant breaking its chains and returning to its homeland, Hindustan", throughout his vast poetic works. Here are some examples:

I'm like that homesick Indian elephant
Who constantly dreams of Hindustan,
And no longer pays attention to his driver.
Rumi - my translation

چون پیل که خواب بیند هند را
پیلبان را نشنود آرد دغا

The elephant remembered Hindustan
And the flames of his Love for God
Started raging high upward.
Rumi - my translation

یاد آمد پیل را هندوستان

آتش عشق خدا بالا گرفت

Last night,
Our elephant was again dreaming of Hindustan.
Out of nostalgic madness,
The elephant was tearing up the veil of night
Until the break of dawn.
Rumi - my translation

دوش آمد پیل ما را باز هندوستان بخواب
پرده شب می درید او از جنون تا بامداد

Out of sheer nostalgia,
The elephant remembers Hindustan
And then at night,
His memories manifest themselves to him.
Rumi - my translation

ذکر هندوستان کند پیل از طلب
پس مصور گردد آن ذکرش به شب

A donkey will never dream of Hindustan!
Because a donkey has never been separated
From Hindustan.
Rumi - my translation

خر نبیند هیچ هندوستان به خواب
خر ز هندوستان نکردست اغتراب

Mark and wound my head
So like that Indian elephant
I don't dream about the beautiful
Gardens of Hindustan.
Rumi - my translation.

همچو پیلم بر سرم زن زخم و داغ

تا نبینم خواب هندوستان و باغ

A blurred vision and a burning heart like the sun
Are like that Indian elephant
Who constantly dreams about Hindustan.
Rumi - my translation

دیده نابینا و دل چو آفتاب
همچو پیلی دیده هندوستان بخواب

Is your elephant also dreaming about Hindustan?
Because you've also ran away
From the circle of your lifelong friends!
Rumi - my translation

خواب دیده پیل تو هندوستان
که رمیدی ز حلقه دوستان

It was the mere sign of a vision of Hindustan
Which made the homesick Indian elephant
Wake up and go completely crazy.
Rumi - my translation

این نشان دید هندستان بود

که جهد از خواب دیوانه شود

It'll take an Indian elephant
To be able to sleep everywhere
While constantly dreaming about
The Land of Hindustan.
Rumi - my translation

پیل باید تا که خسپد او ستان
خواب بیند خطه هندوستان

The eminent 19th century British Orientalist, E.H.Whinfeld explains, in his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi, Hindustan and Hindus' prominence in Rumi's works:

"Masnavi is a grand collection of fables, stories, sayings, poems, couplets, in persian, of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi. It is the best known and popular handbook of Sufi philosophy and practices, and probably has an Islamized content of pre-Islamic Iran. Masnavi also provides several of the contemporary ideas of Persians, Arabs, Greeks about Hindusthan. Masnavi also provides historical hints about contemporary interchanges on Islamization of India which was going on then, e.g. anecdotes during the Mahamud of Gazna's campaigns, stories where slave Hindus play a part, stories where "Infidels' are punished". But it is also full of so many fables which correspond directly with stories from Panchatantra, Hitopadesha, Jataka, and Kuvalayamala. Masnavi includes fables which are so very familiar to the Indian traditions and which a common Hindu child grows up sleeping to. The details, characters, and the situations are sometimes different, but the central idea of the fable, even the 'punch lines' are the same."

In Masnavi, Rumi has dedicated the following metaphorical stories to Hindus and Hindustan in conveying his profound Sufi mystical messages and teachings:

1. The Four Hindus Who Censured One Another.

2. The Merchant Who Was Traveling to Hindustan and His Clever Parrot.
3. The Hindu Slave Who Loved His Master's Daughter.
4. The Indian Tree of Life.
5. The Elephant in the Dark House.
6. Sultan Mahmud Ghazna and His Hindu Slave.

Rumi's poems listed below are translated by the following scholars of Rumi:

  • 'The Indian Tree of Life' - translated by the 19th century scholar of Rumi, E.H. Whinfeld.
  • 'The Elephant in the Dark House' - translated by the 20th century scholar of Rumi, A.J. Arberry.
  • "Clever Parrot"- as a short tale prose - translated by Whinfeld.
  • "The Indian Parrot" - translated by American scholar of Rumi, Coleman Barks.
  • 'The Four Hindustanis who censured one another' - translated by Whinfeld.
  • 'The Merchant who was traveling to Hindustan and his Clever Parrot' - translated by Whinfeld.
  • 'Hindu Slave of Mahmud of Ghazni' - translated by Whinfeld.

The Four Hindustanis Who Censured One Another

English translation and brief explanation by the 19th century British Orientalist, E.H. Whinfeld, from his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi

Four Hindustanis went to the mosque to say their prayers. Each one duly pronounced the Takbir, and was saying his prayers with great devotion, when the Mu'azzin happened to come in. One of them immediately called out, "O Mu'azzin, have you yet called to prayer? It is time to do so." Then the second said to the speaker, "Ah! you have spoken words unconnected with worship, and therefore, according to the Hadith, you have spoiled your prayers."  Thereupon the third scolded the last speaker, saying, "O simpleton, why do you rebuke him? Rather rebuke yourself." Last of all, the fourth said, "God be praised that I have not fallen into the same ditch as my three companions." 

The moral is, not to find fault with others, but rather, according to the proverb, to be admonished by their bad example. Apropos of this proverb, a story is told of two prisoners captured by the tribe of Ghuz. The Ghuzians were about to put one of them to death, to frighten the other, and make him confess where the treasure was concealed, when the doomed man discovered their object, and said, "O noble sirs, kill my companion, and frighten me instead."

The Merchant Who Was Traveling to Hindustan and His Clever Parrot

English translation and brief explanation by the 19th century British Orientalist, E.H. Whinfeld, from his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi

There was a certain merchant who kept a parrot in a cage. Being about to travel to Hindustan on business, he asked the parrot if he had any message to send to his kinsmen in that country, and the parrot desired him to tell them that he was kept confined in a cage. The merchant promised to deliver this message, and on reaching Hindustan, duly delivered it to the first flock of parrots he saw. On hearing it one of them at once fell down dead. The merchant was annoyed with his own parrot for having sent such a fatal message, and on his return home sharply rebuked his parrot for doing so. But the parrot no sooner heard the merchant's tale than ho too fell down dead in his cage. The merchant, after lamenting his death, took his corpse out of the cage and threw it away; but, to his surprise, the corpse immediately recovered life, and flew away, explaining that the Hindustani parrot had only feigned death to suggest this way of escaping from confinement in a cage.

The Hindu Slave Who Loved His Master's Daughter

English translation and brief explanation by the 19th century British Orientalist, E.H. Whinfeld, from his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi

A certain man had a Hindu slave, whom he had brought up along with his children, one of whom was a daughter. When the time came for giving the girl in marriage many suitors presented themselves, and offered large marriage portions to gain her alliance. At last her father selected one who was by no means the richest or noblest of the number, but pious and well-mannered. The women of the family would have preferred one of the richer youths, but the father insisted on having his own way, and the marriage was settled according to his wishes. As soon as the Hindu slave heard of this he fell sick, and the mistress of the family discovered that he was in love with her daughter, and aspired to the honor of marrying her. She was much discomposed at this unfortunate accident, and consulted her husband as to what was best to be done. He said,"Keep the affair quiet, and I will cure the slave of his presumption, in such a way that, according to the proverb,'The Shaikh shall not be burnt, yet the meat shall be well roasted.'" He directed his wife to flatter  the slave with the hope that his wish would be granted, and the girl given to him in marriage. He then celebrated a mock marriage between the slave and the girl, but at night substituted for the girl a boy dressed in female attire, with the result that the bridegroom passed the night in quarrelling with his supposed bride. Next morning he had an interview with the girl and her mother, and said he would have no more to do with her, as, though her appearance was very seductive at a distance, closer acquaintance with her had altogether destroyed the charm. Just so the pleasures of the world seem sweet till they are tried, and then they are found to be very bitter and repulsive. 

The Prophet has declared that "Patience is the key of joy;" in other words, that he who controls and restrains himself from grasping at worldly pleasures will find true happiness; but this precept makes no lasting impression on the bulk of mankind. When bitter experience overtakes them, as the pain of burning afflicts children, or moths sporting with fire, or the pain of amputation a thief, they curse the delusive temptations which brought this pain upon them; but no sooner is the pain abated than they run after the same pleasures as eagerly as ever. This is divinely ordained, that "God may bring to naught the craft of the infidels." 

Their hearts have, as it were, been kindled on the tinder-box of bitter experience, but God has put out the sparks of good resolution, and caused them to forget their experience and vows of abstinence according to the text, "Often as they kindle a beacon-fire for war doth God quench it." This is illustrated by an anecdote of a man who heard a footstep in his house at night, and at once struck a light; but the thief put it out without being observed, and the man remained under the impression that it had gone out of itself. This leads the poet again to dwell on his favorite theme of the sole agency of Allah.

Then, to supply the necessary corrective of this doctrine, another anecdote is told concerning Mahmud and Ayaz. The courtiers grumbled because Ayaz received the stipend of thirty courtiers, and Mahmud by a practical test convinced them that the talents of Ayaz equalled those of thirty men. The courtiers replied that this was due to God's grace, not to any merit on the part of Ayaz; and the king confuted them by pointing out that man's responsibility and merit, or demerit, for his actions are recognized in the Koran. Iblis was condemned for saying to God, "Thou hast caused me to err," and Adam was commended or saying, "We have blackened ourselves." And elsewhere it is said, "Whosoever shall have wrought an atom's weight of good shall behold it; and whoso shall have wrought an atom's weight of evil shall behold it."

The Indian Tree of Life

English translation and brief explanation by the 19th century British Orientalist, E.H. Whinfeld, from his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi

"A certain wise man related that in Hindustan there was a tree of such wonderful virtue that whosoever ate of its fruit lived forever. Hearing this, a king deputed one of his courtiers to go in quest of it. The courtier accordingly proceeded to Hindustan, and traveled all over that country, inquiring of every one he met where this tree was to be found. Some of these persons professed their entire ignorance, others joked him, and others gave him false information; and, finally, he had to return to his country with his mission unaccomplished. He then, as a last resource, betook himself to the sage who had first spoken of the tree, and begged for further information about it, and the sage replied to him as follows:

A learned man once said, for the sake of saying something,
"There is a tree in Hindustan
If you eat the fruit of that tree, you'll never grow
old and never die."
Stories about "the tree" were passed around, and finally
a king sent his envoy
to Hindustan to look for it. People laughed at the man. They
slapped him on the back
and called out, "Sir, I know where your tree is, but it's far
in the jungle and you'll need a ladder!"
He kept traveling, following such directions and
feeling foolish, for years.
He was about to return to the king when he met a wise man.
"Great teacher, show me
some kindness in this search for the tree."
"My son, this is not an actual tree.
though it's been called that. Sometimes it's called a sun,
sometimes an ocean, or
a cloud. These words point to the wisdom that comes through
a true human being, which
may have many effects, the least of which is eternal life!
In the same way one
person can be a father to you and a son to someone else,
uncle to another and nephew
to yet another, so what you are looking for has many names,
and one existence.
Don't search for one of the names.
Move beyond any attachment to names. "
Every war and every conflict
between human beings has happened because
of some disagreement about names.
It's such an unnecessary foolishness, because just
beyond the arguing there's a long
table of companionship, set and waiting for us to sit down."

The Clever Indian Parrot

Translated by American scholar of Rumi, Coleman Barks

There was a merchant setting out for India.

He asked each male and female servant
what they wanted to be brought as a gift.
Each told him a different exotic object:
A piece of silk, a brass figurine,
a pearl necklace.
Then he asked his beautiful caged parrot,
the one with such a lovely voice,
and she said,
"When you see the Indian parrots,
describe my cage. Say that I need guidance
here in my separation from them. Ask how
our friendship can continue with me so confined
and them flying about freely in the meadow mist.
Tell them that I remember well our mornings
moving together from tree to tree.
Tell them to drink one cup of ecstatic wine
in honor of me here in the dregs of my life.
Tell them that the sound of their quarreling
high in the trees would be sweeter
to hear than any music."
This parrot is the spirit-bird in all of us,
that part that wants to return to freedom,
and is the freedom. What she wants
from India is herself!
So this parrot gave her message to the merchant,
and when he reached India, he saw a field
full of parrots. He stopped
and called out what she had told him.
One of the nearest parrots shivered
and stiffened and fell down dead.
The merchant said, "This one is surely kin
to my parrot. I shouldn't have spoken."
He finished his trading and returned home
with the presents for his workers.
When he got to the parrot, she demanded her gift.
"What happened when you told my story
to the Indian parrots?"
"I'm afraid to say."
"Master, you must!"
"When I spoke your complaint to the field
of chattering parrots, it broke
one of their hearts.
She must have been a close companion,
or a relative, for when she heard about you
she grew quiet and trembled, and died."
As the caged parrot heard this, she herself
quivered and sank to the cage floor.
This merchant was a good man.
He grieved deeply for his parrot, murmuring
distracted phrases, self-contradictory -
cold, then loving - clear, then
murky with symbolism.
A drowning man reaches for anything!
The Friend loves this flailing about
better than any lying still.
The One who lives inside existence
stays constantly in motion,
and whatever you do, that king
watches through the window.
When the merchant threw the "dead" parrot
out of the cage, it spread its wings
and glided to a nearby tree!
The merchant suddenly understood the mystery.
"Sweet singer, what was in the message
that taught you this trick?"
"She told me that it was the charm
of my voice that kept me caged.
Give it up, and be released!"
The parrot told the merchant one or two more
spiritual truths. Then a tender goodbye.
"God protect you," said the merchant
"as you go on your new way.
I hope to follow you!"

The Elephant in the Dark House

English translation and brief explanation by the eminent 20th century British Orientalist, A.J. Arberry

Some men feel the elephant in the dark. Depending upon where they touch, they believe the elephant to be like a water spout (trunk), a fan (ear), a pillar (leg) and a throne (back). The sensual eye is just like the palm of the hand. The palm has not the means of covering the whole of the beast. This story of the "The Elephant in the Dark House" is a symbolic explanation of how we fail to understand our true spiritual reality. Rumi uses this story as an example of the limits of individual perception.

Some Hindus had brought an elephant for exhibition and placed it in a dark house. Crowds of people were going into that dark place to see the beat. Finding that ocular inspection was impossible, each visitor felt it with his palm in the darkness.

The palm of one fell on the trunk.

‘This creature is like a water-spout,’ he said.
The hand of another lighted on the elephant’s ear.
To him the beat was evidently like a fan.
Another rubbed against its leg.
‘I found the elephant’s shape is like a pillar,’ he said.
Another laid his hand on its back.
‘Certainly this elephant was like a throne,’ he said."

"The sensual eye is just like the palm of the hand. The palm has not the means of covering the whole of the best. The eye of the Sea is one thing and the foam another. Let the foam go, and gaze with the eye of the Sea. Day and night foam-flecks are flung from the sea: of amazing! You behold the foam but not the Sea. We are like boats dashing together; our eyes are darkened, yet we are in clear water."

Hindu Slave of Mahmud of Ghazni

English translation and brief explanation by the 19th century British Orientalist, E.H.Whinfeld, from his English translation of Rumi's Masnavi

When wise men recognize the true relative importance of the present and the future they cease to shrink from death and annihilation, which lifts them to a higher and nobler life. This is illustrated by an anecdote of Mahmud of Ghazni, quoted from Faridu- 'd-Din 'Attar. Mahmud, in one of his campaigns, took prisoner a Hindu boy, who at first regarded him with the greatest dread, in consequence of the stories he had heard of him from his mother, but afterwards experienced Mahmud's kindness and tenderness, and came to know him and love him. So it is with death. According to the Hadis "Those who have passed away do not grieve because of death, but because of wasted opportunities in life." The Masnavi is "a shop of poverty and self-abnegation," and a treasury containing only the doctrines of "Unity;" and if its stories suggest aught else, that is due to the evil promptings of Iblis, who also misled the Prophet himself to attribute undue power to the idols Lat and 'Uzza and Manat, in a verse which was afterwards cancelled.

"Urdu is a hybrid language that is based on the spoken languages of Northern India with a generous overlay of Arabic and Persian words. ‘Urdu’ is a Turkish word, which means a camp. When Muslims from Afghanistan and Central Asia invaded India in the 12th century and made it their home, Urdu language grew out of the necessity of communication between the newcomers and the indigenous people. It follows many of the conventions of form and expression of those two languages. It is written from right to left like Arabic and Persian and in the same script. By the 18th century, Urdu became a well-developed language with a body of literature that consisted mainly of poetry.

Urdu poetry has a wide range of forms. The Masnavi, for example, is a long narrative romantic poem like The Roman de la Rose of medieval Europe. A marsia is an elegiac poem that grieves over the death of an important person while a qasida, on the other hand, is a panegyric in praise of a king or a patron, usually written in a highly exaggerated style and diction. A na’at is a poem expressing the poet’s devotion to the Prophet of Islam. A rubai is a four-line poem on a specific theme like The Ruba’iat of Omar Khayyam.

Humorous and satirical poetry is also plentiful in Urdu. However, the most popular and important form of poetry is undoubtedly the ghazal. The ghazal is a love poem written in stanzas, consisting of two hemstitches called a sh’er. A ghazal may have seven or nine she’rs but each of them may be independent of the other in thought. One she’r may be about the pangs of separation and next about the impermanence of the world, while the one after that may express the undying devotion to the loved one—human or divine. Thus a ghazal is a collection of verses expressing the poet’s thoughts and emotions joined together by the rhyming end words. It allows the poet the freedom to move from topic to topic at will. The love expressed in the ghazal is idealized love in which the beloved is adored and worshipped like a goddess. It is like Palamon’s love for Emily in Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale and it is unlike Arcite’s love which is sensual and worldly.

In the 19th century, Urdu came under Western influence because of British dominance, and the British system of education it fostered. Thoughtful and enlightened people began to question the conventions and traditions of the old order. A powerful modernistic literary movement emerged in the 1930’s that sought to change the thought as well as forms of Urdu literature. Novels and short stories became very popular in this period. The new poets started writing in blank verse and free verse in order to break away from the restricted traditional forms. Through their work poets and writers of fiction tried to reform the prevalent social and political system. Using their writings as social commentary, some talked ardently about freedom from the British rule. The ghazal, however, has survived as the most popular form of poetry in spite of these radical changes. People still gather in large numbers to listen to poets read their poems for long hours, sometimes all night.

A gathering of poets is called a mushaira and it is a small, intimate social function. Traditionally, the poets and members of the audience sit on a carpet covered floor in horse-shoe formation. The leader is usually the most distinguished poet or the most respected scholar. The reading of the poems starts with the youngest or the least known poet. An oil lamp or lighted candle is placed before the poet to indicate that it is his or her turn to read and to provide better lighting for his reading. In ascending order, the poets read their poems until the candle came to the leader. If the leader is a poet, he will read his poem. If not, he will comment on the poems read that day. Then, he will announce the misra-e-tarha or the half line of poetry on the metrical pattern by which the poets will have to write their poems for the next meeting.

After the mushaira, a discussion often ensues about poetry and finer points of literary and artistic concerns. This, sometimes, causes differences of opinion that lead to controversies for weeks and months. The mushaira can also lead to jealousies and rivalries.

Nowadays, on the Subcontinent of India and Pakistan, the mushaira has changed somewhat but is still as vibrant and intellectually stimulating as ever. Mushairas are held in cities all over the world where there are concentrations of Urdu speaking populations. Recent times have seen a proliferation of mushairas in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. Most of the poets at these mushairas, interestingly enough, are not professional writers or academics. Some are bankers, scientists, lawyers, doctors, computer experts or belong to other professions, but continue with the tradition of the mushairas and a love for Urdu poetry more broadly."

      The History of Urdu Language (in Urdu)

      "This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. The earliest linguistic influences in the development of Urdu probably began with the Muslim conquest of Sindh in 711. The language started evolving from Farsi and Arabic contacts during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent by Persian and Turkic forces from the 11th century onward. Urdu developed more decisively during the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1858). When the Delhi Sultanate expanded south to the Deccan Plateau, the literary language was influenced by the languages spoken in the south, by Punjabi and Haryanvi, and by Sufi and court usage. The earliest verse dates to the 15th century, and the golden period of Urdu poetry was the 18th–19th centuries. Urdu religious prose goes back several centuries, while secular writing flourished from the 19th century onward. Modern Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and is also spoken by many millions of people in India."

      اردو زبانکی تاریخ

      A History of Urdu Literature

      "A History of Urdu Literature, written in English by the India-born T. Grahame Bailey and first published in 1932, successfully managed to order a vast and amorphous body of literary activity into one volume. Even more deeply than preceding works by Abdul Latif’s The Influence of English Literature on Urdu Literature, London, 1924; and Ram Babu Saxena’s A History of Urdu Literature, Lucknow 1927, it marked a stage in the development of literary consciousness."

      Tarikh-e Zaban-e Urdu 

      "Late Prof. Masud Husain’s magnum opus, Tarikh-e Zaban-e Urdu, describes in detail the history of Urdu’s origin and development. On account of coherence and plausibility, the book is considered to offer one of the most acceptable theories on the genesis and development of Urdu. He proved his theory with historical and authentic evidence, taking into account the formation of Indo-Aryan languages. Keeping in view the theories of historical linguistics and ancient sources, he proved that Urdu was born in and around Delhi. According to him, four vernacular dialects, namely Braj Bhasha, Mewati, Haryanvi and Khariboli, exerted their influences on Urdu during its long formative phases and among them Haryanvi and Khariboli were the ones that proved to be more decisive. Later, the same language reached Deccan in the 13th and 14th centuries AD with the Muslim armies and slowly but surely gained refinement over the centuries and a standard Urdu language emerged."

      تاریخ زبان اردو

      By Prof. Masud Husain (1919-2010)

      "Shamsur Rahman Faruqi's book discusses the origins and progress of Urdu as a literary language and culture. He analyzes, through examples from dominant literary forms, the origins of both Hindi and Urdu; and evaluates the growth of serious Urdu poetry through studies of all its major forms and practitioners. This is a pioneering work that demolishes myths, proposing instead provocative new theses that all South Asian and Islamic scholars will find riveting."

      By Ram Babu Saxena (1897 - 1957)

      "The object of A History of Urdu Literature (translated into Urdu as Tareekh-e Adab-e Urdu) by the eminent 20th century Indian poet and scholar, Ram Babu Saxena is to trace an outline of the development of Urdu Literature from the earliest time to the present day with biographical sketches of writers and critical appreciations of their works with a description of the more important of them." 

      By Ram Babu Saxena (1897 - 1957)

      "The incomparable German-born scholar of Sufism and Rumi, late Prof. Annemarie Schimmel’s valuable work, “Classical Urdu literature from Its beginning to Iqbal”, is not only a sound review of classical poetic tradition but it also gains a prominent status when it discusses Ghalib. She reads Ghalib in the context of his aestheticism, poeticism and imagery: 

      “Ghalib‘s imagery is that of traditional Persian-Urdu poetry; but the dominant color is red. There are few poets who used the imagery of fire in its various connotations as intensely as he did combining the dance of the red sparks with the red roses which remind him in turn, of red blood, and of red wine; all of them are in constant wave like movement.”

      "The book introduces the reader to the form and flavor of Urdu ghazal which, undoubtedly, is the most popular and prized poetic genre in Urdu. It contains translations of 108 ghazals selected from the works of nine major poets: Wali, Dard, Mir, Ghalib, Momin, Iqbal, Hasrat, Firaq and Faiz. The translations are faithful to the sense and spirit of the original and are couched in a lucid, poetical language. For the convenience of the non-Urdu knowing reader, the author has provided in the book, in addition to the text in Urdu Romanized versions of the ghazals. Among other features of the book should be mentioned the introductory essay on the ghazal, which is comprehensive and fully illustrated, and brief biographical notes on the poets, along with their authentic portraits."

      مولاناجلال الدین رومی

      مولاناجلال الدین رومی کی شخصیت اور ان کا کالام دونوں هی کسی تعارف کے محتاج نهیں۔ چھبیس ھزار چھ سو چھیاسٹھ اشعار پر مبنی ان کی مشهور زمانه مثنوی تصوف اور عشق الهٰی کے جمله موضوعات کو انتهائ سادگی روحانی اور عام فهم انداز مین بیان کرتی ھے۔ عشق الهٰی اور معرفت کے انتهائ مشکل و پیچیده نکات سلجھانے کے لیے مولانا نے سبق آموز حکایات و قصے کهانیوں سے مدد لی ھے جو بھی لکھا ھے قرآن و حدیث نبوی سے اس کی سند بھی بیان کی جاتی هے اس لیئے آج آٹھ سو سال گزر جانے کے باوجود ان کے کلام کی اهمیت و افادیت میں کوئ کمی واقع نهین ھوئ۔ 

      مولانا جلال الدین رومی الملقب به مولوی معنوی سن باره سو سات میں بلخ میں پیدا ھوئے۔ آپ کے والد بزرگوار بهاء الدین اپنے دور کے مشهور علماء مین شمار کیئے جاتے تھے، حتی کے ان حلقهء درس میں حاکم وقت خوارزم شاه بھی شرکت کیا کرتے تھا۔ وحشی منگولوں کے حملوں کے منڈلاتے خطرات کے پیش نظر مولانا کے خاندان نے بلخ کو خیر باد کها اور پناه کی تلاش مین انا طویه کی راه لی، راستے میں نیشاپور میں رکے جهاں مشهور صوفی بزرگ عطار نیشا پوری سے ملاقات کی۔ عطا بڑے قیافه شناس تھے۔ جلال الدین رومی کو دیکھ کر سمجھ گئے که آگے چل کر یه بچه عشق و معرفت کی دنیا میں دھوم مچا دے گا۔ چناں چه انهوں نے بهاء الدین کو ان کی تربیت پر خصوصی توجه دینے کی هدایت کی۔ حج کی سعادت حاصل کرتے هوئے بهاء الدین اناطولیه پهنچے جهاں کے سلجوتی حاکم علاءالدین کیقباد نے انکا پرتپاک استقبال کیا۔ قونیه میں بهاء الدین نے ایک مدرسے میں تدریس شروع کی اور بهت جلد مشهور ھوگئے، ان کے انتقال کے بعد مولانا رومی نے والد کی گدی سنبھال لی۔ حلقهء درس میں شریک هونے والے حاکم وقت اور اعیان دولت ان سے بے انتها عقیدت رکھتے تھے۔

      مولانا کی زندگی بڑے سکون سے گزررهی تھی، ایک دن گرمیوں کی صبح وه حوض کے پاس معمول کے مطابق درس دے رهے تھے، ایک خوانچه فروش حلوه بیچتا ھوا مدرسے کے احاطے میں آگیا۔ اپنے اطراف اور ماحول سے بے پرواه اور بے خبر اس جگه جا کر کھڑا ھواگیا جهاں مولانا تدریس میں مشغول تھے۔ خوانچه فروش نے تعجب سے پوچھا که یه سب کیا ھے، کیا ھورھا هے۔ مولانا نے بڑے تحمل سے کها یه تم نهین جانتے جاؤ، اپنا کام کرو۔ وه آگے بڑھا اور کتاب مولانا کے هاتھ سے لے کر اٹھا اور حوض میں پھینک دی۔ مولانا نے کها یه تم نے کیا کیا۔ میں نے تو کچھ بھی نهیں کیا۔ یه کهه کر اس نے حوض سے کتاب نکال کر رومی نے حیرت سے پوچھا، یه کیا ھے، اب باری اس کی تھی، یه تم نهیں جانتے یه که کر اس نے اپنا خوانچه اٹھایا اور اسی طرح صدا لگاتا ھوا باهر چلا گیا۔ یه حضرت شمس تبریز تھے۔ مولانا رومی، شمس تبریز کو اپنے ساتھ لے آئے۔ انهوں نے علم کی انتھائ اعلیٰ منازل طے کررکھی تھین، اب عشق الهٰی و معرفت کے سفر کا آغاز کیا جس مین قدم قدم پر انهیں اپنے مرشد شمس تبریز کی راه نمائ حاصل تھی۔ مولانا رومی نے رفته رفته اپنا رابطه اپنے ماحول اور گردو پیش سے منقطع کرلیا۔ بس وه تھے اور شمس تبریز کی صحبت۔ یه صورت حال ان کے شاگردوں کے لیے کسی طرح بھی قابل قبول نه تھی۔ چنانچه شمس تبریز انکے نزدیک متنازع شخصیت بن گئے، شاگردوں و عقیدت مندوں کے بدلتے هوئے تیور دیکھ کر ایک رات اچانک حضرت شمس تبریز غائب ھوگئے۔ بعض روایات کے مطابق انھیں شهید کردیا گیا۔
      شمس تبریز کی جدائ مولانا رومی کے لیے ناقابل برداشت تھی۔ اپنے مرشد کے فراق میں خود و ارفتگی کے عالم میں انهوں نے فی البدیهه شعر کهنا شروع کردیئے۔ یوں عرفان و آگهی کی مضبوط ترین دستاویز مثنوی تخلیق ھوئ۔

      اس مثنوی کے علاوه مولانا رومی کا دیوان کبیر، جو چالیس هزار اشعار پر مشتمل ھے، جس میں بائیس شعری مجموعے بشمول دیوان شمس تبریز عربی، ترکی اور یونانی زبانوں میں ان کا کلام۔ تصوف پر ایک کتاب فی مافیه، مجالس سبع اور مکتوبات، ایسی کتابیں هیں جو ان کے نام کو صوفیانه ادب میں همیشه روشن اور تابنده رکھیں گی۔
      هر سال ستره دسمبر کو مولانا کا عرس [شب عروس] کے نام سے قونیه میں منعقد کیا جاتا ھے۔

      مولانا جلال ‌الدین محمد بلخی رومی

       پیدائش:1207ء ، انتقال: 1273ء- مشہور فارسی شاعر تھے۔

      پیدائش اور نام و نسب

      اصل نام جلال الدین تھا لیکن مولانا رومی کے نام سے مشہور ہوئے۔ جواہر مضئیہ میں سلسلہ نسب اس طرح بیان کیا ہے : محمد بن محمد بن محمد بن حسین بن احمد بن قاسم بن مسیب بن عبداللہ بن عبدالرحمن بن ابی بکرن الصدیق۔ اس روایت سے حسین بلخی مولانا کے پردادا ہوتے ہیں لیکن سپہ سالار نے انہیں دادا لکھا ہے اور یہی روایت صحیح ہے۔ کیونکہ وہسلجوقی سلطان کے کہنے پر اناطولیہ چلے گئے تھے جو اس زمانے میں روم کہلاتا تھا۔ ان کے والد بہاؤ الدین بڑے صاحب علم و فضل بزرگ تھے۔ ان کا وطن بلخ تھا اور یہیں مولانا رومی 1207ء بمطابق 604ھ میں پیدا ہوئے۔

      ابتدائی تعلیم

      ابتدائی تعلیم کے مراحل شیخ بہاولدین نے طے کرادیے اور پھر اپنے مرید سید برہان الدین کو جو اپنے زمانے کے فاضل علماء میں شمار کیے جاتے تھے مولاناکا معلم اور اتالیق بنادیا۔ اکثر علوم مولانا کو انہی سے حاصل ہوئے۔ اپنے والد کی حیات تک ان ہی کی خدمت میں رہے۔ والد کے انتقال کے بعد 639ھ میں شام کا قصد کیا ۔ ابتدا میں حلب کے مدرسہ حلاویہ میں رہ کر مولاناکمال الدین سے شرف تلمذ حاصل کیا۔

      علم و فضل

      مولانا رومی اپنے دور کے اکابر علماء میں سے تھے۔ فقہ اور مذاہب کے بہت بڑے عالم تھے۔ لیکن آپ کی شہرت بطور ایک صوفی شاعر کے ہوئی۔ دیگرعلوم میں بھی آپ کو پوری دستگاہ حاصل تھی۔ دوران طالب علمی میں ہی پیچیدہ مسائل میں علمائے وقت مولانا کی طرف رجوع کرتے تھے۔ شمس تبریز مولانا کے پیر و مرشد تھے۔ مولانا کی شہرت سن کر سلجوقی سلطان نے انھیں اپنے پاس بلوایا۔ مولانا نے درخواست قبول کی اور قونیہ چلے گئے ۔وہ تقریباَ 30 سال تک تعلیم و تربیت میں مشغول رہے۔ جلال الدین رومی ؒ نے 3500 غزلیں 2000 رباعیات اور رزمیہ نظمیں لکھیں۔


      مولانا کے دو فرزند تھے ، علاؤ الدین محمد ، سلطان ولد ۔ علاؤ الدین محمد کا نام صرف اس کارنامے سے زندہ ہے کہ انہوں نے شمس تبریز کو شہید کیا تھا۔ سلطان ولد جو فرزند اکبر تھے ، خلف الرشید تھے ، گو مولانا کی شہرت کے آگے ان کا نام روشن نہ ہوسکا لیکن علوم ظاہری و باطنی میں وہ یگانہ روزگار تھے۔ ان کی تصانیف میں سے خاص قابل ذکر ایک مثنوی ہے ، جس میں مولانا کے حالات اور واردات لکھے ہیں اور اس لحاظ سے وہ گویا مولانا کی مختصر سوانح عمری ہے۔

      سلسلہ باطنی

      مولانا کا سلسلہ اب تک قائم ہے۔ ابن بطوطہ نے اپنے سفرنامے میں لکھا ہے کہ ان کے فرقے کے لوگ جلالیہ کہلاتے ہیں۔ چونکہ مولانا کا لقب جلال الدین تھا اس لیے ان کے انتساب کی وجہ سے یہ نام مشہور ہوا ہوگا ۔ لیکن آج کل ایشیائے کوچک ، شام ، مصر اور قسطنطنیہ میں اس فرقے کو لوگ مولویہ کہتے ہیں۔دوسری جنگ عظیم سے قبل بلقان، افریقہ اور ایشیا میں مولوی طریقت کے پیروکاروں کی تعداد ایک لاکھ سے زائد تھی۔ یہ لوگ نمد کی ٹوپی پہنتے ہیں جس میں جوڑ یا درز نہیں ہوتی ، مشائخ اس ٹوپی پر عمامہ باندھتے ہیں۔ خرقہ یا کرتہ کی بجائے ایک چنٹ دار پاجامہ ہوتاہے۔ ذکر و شغل کا یہ طریقہ ہے کہ حلقہ باندھ کر بیٹھتے ہیں۔ ایک شخص کھڑا ہو کر ایک ہاتھ سینے پر اور ایک ہاتھ پھیلائے ہوئے رقص شروع کرتا ہے۔ رقص میں آگے پیچھے بڑھنا یا ہٹنا نہیں ہوتا بلکہ ایک جگہ جم کر متصل چکر لگاتے ہیں۔ سماع کے وقت دف اور نے بھی بجاتے ہیں۔


      بقیہ زندگی وہیں گذار کر تقریباَ 66 سال کی عمر میں سن 1273ء بمطابق 672ھ میں انتقال کرگئے۔ قونیہ میں ان کا مزار آج بھی عقیدت مندوں کا مرکز ہے۔

      مثنوی رومی

      ان کی سب سے مشہور تصنیف ’’مثنوی مولانا روم‘‘ ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ ان کی ایک مشہور کتاب ’’فیہ مافیہ‘‘ بھی ہے۔

      باقی ایں گفتہ آیدبے زباں
      درددل ہر کس کہ دارد نورجان

      ترجمہ:"جس شخص کی جان میں نورہوگااس مثنوی کابقیہ حصہ اس کے دل میں خودبخود اتر جائیگا"

      اقبال اور رومی

      علامہ محمد اقبال مولانا رومی کو اپنا روحانی پیر مانتے تھے۔ کشف اور وجدان کے ذریعے ادراک حقیقت کے بعد صوفی صحیح معنوں میں عاشق ہو جاتا ہے کہ بہ رغبت تمام محبوب حقیقی کے تمام احکام کی پیروی کرتا ہے۔ رومی نے جوہر عشق کی تعریف اور اس کی ماہیت کی طرف معنی خیز اشارے کیے ہیں ۔ صوفی کی ذہنی تکمیل کا مقام کیا ہے اس کے متعلق دو شعر نہایت دل نشیں ہیں۔

      آدمی دید است باقی پوست است
      دید آں باشد کہ دید دوست است
      جملہ تن را در گداز اندر بصر
      در نظر رو در نظر رو در نظر

      علامہ اقبال نے اس کی یوں تشریح کی ہے

      خرد کے پاس خبر کے سوا کچھ اور نہیں
      ترا علاج نظر کے سوا کچھ اور نہیں

      ان کے 800 ویں جشن پیدائش پر ترکی کی درخواست پر اقوام متحدہ کے ادارہ برائے تعلیم، ثقافت و سائنس یونیسکو نے 2007ء کو بین الاقوامی سالِ رومی قرار دیا۔ اس موقع پر یونیسکو تمغہ بھی جاری کرے گا۔

      Story of Maulana Rumi from Birth to Grave (in Urdu)

      مولانا رومی اور شمس تبریز
       ڈاکٹر انعام الحق کوثر

        ء-1244- سے پيشتر کہ مولانا رومي کي مسند نشيني فقر کي تاريخ اسيسال شروع ہوتی ہے ، ان کی شہرت ، علوم معقول و منقول میں مہارت کے باعث نزدیک و دور تک پھیل چکی تھی ۔ وہ علوم دینیہ کا درس دیتے تھے ۔ وعظ کرتے تھے ، فتوے لکھتے تھے اور سماع سے سخت دوری کا مظاہرہ کرتے تھے۔ وہ زندگی کی چھتیس بہاریں گذار چکے تو ان کی زندگی کا دوسرا دور ایک مرد پراسرار شمس الدین بن علی بن ملک دادتبریزی کی ملاقات سے آغاز پایا جن کی ذات میں حد درجہ جاذبیت تھی۔یوں تو اس سلسلے میں روایتی انداز نے دل کھول کرتا نا بانابنا ہے پھر بھی یہ حقیقت اظہر من الشمس ہو جاتی ہے کہ مولانا رومی کی شمس تبریز سے ملاقات نے کایا ہی پلٹ کر رکھ دی ۔ تمام نقاد اور مورخ یک کلمہ ہو کر تحریر کرتے ہیں کہ شمس تبریز علوم ظاہری میں ماہر ، خوش کلام، شیرین زباں اور ازیںبالاتر آنکہ جذب و سلوک کی منزلیں طے کر چکے تھے۔ وہ درویشوں کی تلاش میں شہر بہ شہر گھومتے پھرتے تھے ۔ یہی تلاش انہیں قونیہ میں بھی لے آئی ۔ مولانا نے شمس کے ہاتھ پر بیعت کی اور انہیں گھر لے گئے ۔ مختلف بیانات سے یہی نتیجہ اخذ ہوتا ہے کہ حضرت شمس دو برس کے لگ بھگ آپ کے ساتھ رہے ۔ ایک بار وہ چلے گئے تھے پھر انہیں لایا گیا ۔ دوسری دفعہ جا کر واپس نہ لوٹے ۔ ایک روایت کے مطابق قتل کر دیے گئے ۔ مولانا رومی کی شمس تبریز سے ملاقات نے ان کی زندگی ،جس میں قبل ازیں شروع سے ماورا کوئی چیز داخل نہ ہوئی تھی، ایک ایسا پرشور انقلاب پیدا کیا کہ وہ علوم معقول و منقول سے صرف نظر کرکے تصو ف سلوک اور عشق و معرفت کے عقائد اور مسائل کی جانب متوجہ ہو گئے ۔ ان کی یہ حالت ہو گئی ”زور را بگذاشت او زاری گرفت “ اور ”دل خود کام را از عشق خوں کرد

      Read The Entire Article Below:

      وجودِ آدمی از عشق می رَسَد بہ کمال
      گر ایں کمال نَداری، کمال نقصان است 

      آدمی کا وجود عشق سے ہی کمال تک پہنچتا ہے
       اور اگر تو یہ کمال نہیں رکھتا تو کمال نقصان ہے۔

      مردہ بُدم زندہ شُدم، گریہ بدم خندہ شدم
      دولتِ عشق آمد و من دولتِ پایندہ شدم 

      میں مُردہ تھا زندہ ہو گیا 
      گریہ کناں تھا مسکرا اٹھا
       دولتِ عشق کیا ملی کہ 
      میں خود ایک لازوال دولت ہو گیا۔

      حاصلِ عُمرَم سہ سُخَن بیش نیست
      خام بُدَم، پختہ شُدَم، سوختَم

      میری عمر کا حاصل ان تین باتوں سے زائد کچھ بھی نہیں ہے
       خام تھا، پختہ ہوا اور جل گیا۔

      ہر کہ اُو بیدار تر، پُر درد تر
      ہر کہ اُو آگاہ تر، رُخ زرد تر

      ہر وہ کہ جو زیادہ بیدار ہے اسکا درد زیادہ ہے
       ہر وہ کہ جو زیادہ آگاہ ہے اسکا چہرہ زیادہ زرد ہے۔

      خرد نداند و حیراں شَوَد ز مذہبِ عشق
      اگرچہ واقفِ باشد ز جملہ مذہب ھا

      خرد، مذہبِ عشق کے بارے میں کچھ نہیں جانتی سو (مذہب عشق کے معاملات سے) حیران ہو جاتی ہے۔
       اگرچہ خرد اور تو سب مذاہب کے بارے میں سب کچھ جانتی ہے۔

      خدایا رحم کُن بر من، پریشاں وار می گردم
      خطا کارم گنہگارم، بہ حالِ زار می گردم

      اے خدا مجھ پر رحم کر کہ میں پریشان حال پھرتا ہوں
       خطار کار ہوں، گنہگار ہوں اور اپنے اس حالِ زار کی
       وجہ سے ہی گردش میں ہوں۔

      گہے خندم گہے گریم، گہے اُفتم گہے خیزم
      مسیحا در دلم پیدا و من بیمار می گردم

      اس شعر میں ایک بیمار کی کیفیات بیان کی ہیں جو بیم و رجا میں الجھا ہوا ہوتا ہے کہ کبھی ہنستا ہوں، کبھی روتا ہوں، کبھی گرتا ہوں اور کبھی اٹھ کھڑا ہوتا ہوں اور ان کیفیات کو گھومنے سے تشبیہ دی ہے کہ میرے دل میں مسیحا پیدا ہو گیا ہے اور میں بیمار اسکے گرد گھومتا ہوں۔ دل کو مرکز قرار دے کر اور اس میں ایک مسیحا بٹھا کر، بیمار اسکا طواف کرتا ہے۔

      بیا جاناں عنایت کُن تو مولانائے رُومی را
      غلامِ شمس تبریزم، قلندر وار می گردم

      اے جاناں آ جا اور مجھ رومی پر عنایت کر
       کہ میں شمس تبریز کا غلام ہوں 
      اور دیدار کے واسطے قلندر وار گھوم رہا ہوں۔ 

      یک دست جامِ بادہ و یک دست زلفِ یار
      رقصے چنیں میانۂ میدانم آرزوست

      ایک ہاتھ میں شراب کا جام ہو اور دوسرے ہاتھ میں یار کی زلف
       اور اسطرح بیچ میدان کے رقص کرنے کی آرزو ہے۔

      دی شیخ با چراغ ہمی گشت گردِ شہر
      کز دیو و دد ملولم و انسانم آرزوست

      کل (ایک) شیخ چراغ لیئے سارے شہر کے گرد گھوما کیا 
      اور کہتا رہا: کہ میں شیطانوں اور درندوں سے ملول ہوں
       اور کسی انسان کا آزرو مند ہوں۔

      واللہ کہ شہر بے تو مرا حبس می شوَد
      آوارگی و کوہ و بیابانم آرزوست

      واللہ کہ تیرے بغیر شہر میرے لئے حبس (زنداں) بن گیا ہے
       اب مجھے آوارگی اور دشت و بیابانوں کی آرزو ہے۔

      شاد باش اے عشقِ خوش سودائے ما
      اے طبیبِ جملہ علّت ہائے ما

      اے دوائے نخوت و ناموسِ ما
      اے تو افلاطون و جالینوسِ ما


      خوش رہ اے ہمارے اچھے جنون والے عشق
       تُو جو کہ ہماری تمام علّتوں کا طبیب ہے۔

      تو جو کہ ہماری نفرت اور ناموس کی دوا ہے
       تو جو ہمارا افلاطون اور جالینوس ہے۔

      قونیہ اور تصوف کی عالمگیر تحریک  

      مولانا روم کی تصوف کے لئے خدمات بے پناہ ہیں۔ ان کی مثنوی کا شماراہل تصوف کی مقبول ترین کتابوں میں ہوتا ہے۔ ایک اندازے کے مطابق اس کے اشعار کی تعداد 2500 سے زائد ہے۔ علامہ اقبال اس مثنوی سے بہت متاثر تھے۔ وہ مولانا روم کو اپنا مرشد کہا کرتے تھے۔ انہوں نے ان کے لئے "مرشد رومی" اور خود کے لئے "مرید ہندی" کی اصطلاح استعمال کی ہے۔

      :Read The Entire Article Below

      مولانا روم کی کتاب فیہ مافیہ کے ترجمہ ملفوظات رومی سے


      ایک بادشاہ تھا ایک بندہ خاص اس کا بہت مقرب تھا وہ غلام جب بادشاہ کی محل سرائے کی طرف جانے لگتا تو حاجت مند لوگ اپنی حاجتیں لکھ کر رقعے اسے دیتے۔ کہ وہ بادشاہ کے حضور میں پیش کردے۔ وہ ان رقعوں کو چمڑے کی تھیلی میں ڈال لیتا۔ لیکن جب وہ بادشاہ کے حضور پہنچتا تو بادشاہ کے جمال کی تاب نہ لاسکتا اور بے ہوش جاتا۔ بادشاہ معشوقانہ انداز سے اس کے سینہ جیب اور چمڑے کی تلاشی لیتا کہ یہ بندہ میرے حسن و جمال میں مستغرق ہے آخر اس کے پاس کیا ہے؟ رقعے نکال لیتا اور رقعہ کی پشت پر حاجت روائی کا حکم لکھ دیتا۔ اور تمام رقعے پھر چمڑے کی تھیلی میں ڈال دیتا۔
      چنانچہ جس کسی نے رقعہ میں جو کچھ لکھا ہوتا وہ اسے مل جاتا۔ بلکہ جو کچھ لکھا ہوتا اس سے دگنا مل جاتا اور کوئی محروم نہ رہتا۔ بادشاہ کے دوسرے بندے جو ہوش وجود میں ہوتے انہیں سمجھ نہ آتی کہ حاجت مندوں کی حاجتیں وہ کس طرح بادشاہ کے سامنے پیش کریں۔ جب وہ ایسی درخواستیں بادشاہ کے سامنے پیش بھی کرتے تو سو میں بمشکل ایک حاجت کی حاجت روائی ہوتی۔

      خدا تعالی نے انسان کو اپنے قرب کے لئے پیدا کیا ہے

      یاد رکھ انسان کو دوسے ادنیٰ کاموں کے لئے نہیں پیدا کیا گیا۔ یہ تو ایسا ہی ہے کہ تو ہندوستانی فولاد کی انمول تلوار جو بادشاہوں کے خزانوں میں ملتی ہےلائے اور اسے گوشت کاٹنے کا چھرا بنالے۔ کہ میں تلوار کو بیکار نہیں رکھتا۔ اس سے یوں کام لینے میں مصلحت ہے۔ یا تو سونے کی ایک دیگ لے آئے اور اس میں شلغم پکانے لگے۔ حالانکہ اس کے ایک ذرے سے سو دیگیں ہاتھ آتی ہوں۔ یا ایک قیمتی تلوار کو ٹوٹا برتن لٹکانے کے لئے کھونٹی بنا لے اور کہے میں مصلحت اس میں دیکھتا ہوں کہ برتن کو اس پر لٹکاؤں تلوار میرے پاس بیکار نہیں ہے۔ کیا یہ افسوس اور ہنسی کا مقام نہیں کہ جبکہ برتن لکڑی کی کھونٹی سے یا ایک پیسے والی لوہے کی میخ سے لٹکایا جاسکتا ہے تو ناحق سودینار والی تلوار سے یہ کام لیا جائے کیا یہ عقل کی بات ہے۔ خداتعالٰی نے تیری بڑی قیمت مقرر کی ہے۔ اپنے آپ کو سستا نہ بیچ کیونکہ تیری قیمت بہت زیادہ ہے۔

      پوری توجہ سے کام میں لگ جا

      مجنوں نے لیلٰی کےشہر جانے کا ارادہ کیا جب تک مجنوں کو ہوش رہا وہ اونٹ کو اس طرف دوڑاتا رہا۔ جب وہ لیلٰی کے خیال میں مستغرق ہوگیا تو اپنے آپ کو اور اونٹ کو بھول گیا۔ گاؤں میں اس اونٹ کا بچہ تھا اونٹ کو موقع جو ملا تو اس نے گاؤں کا رخ کرلیا اور وہاں لوٹ آیا۔ جب مجنوں کو ہوش آیا تو اسے معلوم ہوا کہ اس کی مسافت صرف دودن کی تھی مگر سفر میں اسے تین ماہ لگ چکے ہیں۔ مجنوں چلایا کہ یہ اونٹ میرے لئے مصیبت ہے اونٹ پر سے کود کر اتر آیا اور پیدل روانہ ہوا۔
      میری اونٹنی تو میرے پیچھے پیچھے چل رہی ہے میرے آگے آگے محبت کا قافلہ رواں ہے اس لئے میں اور میری اونٹنی دو مختلف راستوں پر گامزن ہیں۔

      ہمارے علما کا حال

      کہتے ہیں ایک بادشاہ نے اپنا ایک بیٹا ایک ہنر مند جماعت کے سپرد کررکھا تھا کہ وہ اسے علوم نجوم اور رمل وغیرہ سکھائیں۔ انہوں نے اسے لکھا پڑھا کر مسلم الثبوت استاد بنادیا۔ بیوقوفی اور احمق پن اس میں کمال کا موجود تھا۔ ایک دن بادشاہ نے انگوٹھی پنی مٹھی میں دبائی اور بیٹے امتحان لیا۔ کہا بیٹا مجھے بتاؤ میری مٹھی میں کیا ہے؟
      اس نے جواب دیا آپ کی مٹھی میں کوئی ایسی چیز ہے جو گول ہے زرد ہے اندر سے خالی ہے بادشاہ نے کہا تم نے ساری نشانیاں ٹھیک ٹھیک بتادی ہیں تو اب حکم لگاؤ کہ وہ کیا چیز ہے؟ وہ بولا اسے دف ہونا چاہئے۔
      بادشاہ نے کہا بیٹا تو کبھی بڑی مشکل نشانیاں بتادیں۔ جن سے عقلیں ورطہ حیرت میں پڑگئیں لیکن چھوٹی سے بات تیرے علم اور عقل میں کیوں نہ آئی کہ دف جتنی بڑی چیز مٹھی میں نہیں آسکتی۔
      اسی طرح ہمارے زمانے کے علما کئی علوم میں موشگافیاں کرتے ہیں اور جن چیزوں کا تعلق ان سے نہیں خوب سمجھتے ہیں اور ان پر بہت حاوی اور جو چیز سب سے بڑی اور سب سے قریب تر ہے ان کی اپنی خودی ہے۔ ان میں سے کوئی بھی اپنی خودی کو نہیں جانتا۔ چیزوں کی حرمت و حلت کے متعلق یہ فتوٰی دیتے ہیں کہ یہ چیز جائز ہے اور وہ ناجائز۔ یہ چیز حلال ہے اور وہ حرام۔ لیکن ان میں سے اپنے آپ کو کوئی نہیں جانتا کہ وہ حلال ہے یا حرام؟ جائز ہے یا ناجائز؟ پاک ہے یا ناپاک؟ پس اسی کا یہ خلا زردی نقش اور گولائی سب عارضی ہیں تو اسے آگ میں ڈال دے تو ان میں سے کچھ بھی باقی نہیں رہتا ذات اللہ سب سے معرا ہے۔

       غزل مشهور مولانا رومی ازدیوان شمس
       ترجمه به اردو- طارق شاہ بھائی

      نہ من بے ہودہ گردِ کوچہ و بازار می گردم
      مذاقِ عاشقی دارم پئے دیدار می گردم

      خدایا رحم کن بر من پریشان وار می گردم
      خطا کارم، گناہ گارم، بہ حالِ زار می گردم

      شرابِ شوق می نوشم، بہ گردِ یار می گردم
      سخن مستانہ می گویم، ولے ہشیار می گردم

      ہزاراں غوطہ ہا خوردم دریں دریائے بے پایاں
      برائے گوہرِ معنی بدریا پار می گردم

      گہے خندم، گہے گریم، گہے افتم، گہے خیزم
      مسیحا در دلم پیدا و من بیمار می گردم

      بیا جاناں عنایت کن تو مولانائے رومی را
      غلامِ شمس تبریزم قلندر وار می گردم

      غزل مولانا رومی 
       ترجمه به اردو- طارق شاہ بھائی

      نہ میں بیہودہ گلیاں اور نہ ہی بازار پھرتا ہوں 
      مزاجِ عاشقی میں، طالبِ دیدار پھرتا ہوں

      خدایا رحم کرمجھ پر، پریشاں خوار پھرتا ہوں 
      بدولت میں گناہوں کی بہ حالِ زار پھرتا ہوں

      شرابِ شوق پیتا ہوں، میں گردِ یار پھرتا ہوں
      کروں مستانوں سی باتیں، مگر ہشیار پھرتا ہوں

      ہزاروں کھا چُکا غوطےمیں اِس دریائے وُسْعَت میں 
      مگر معنی کی موتی کو، میں اِس کے پار پھرتا ہوں

      کبھی ہنسنا کبھی رونا، کبھی گِرنا کبھی اُٹھنا
      مَسِیحا کی نَمُود اِس دل میں! میں بیمار پھرتا ہوں

      مری جاں آ، عنایت کرتومولانا ئے رومی کو
      غلامِ شمس تبریزی، قلندروار پھرتا ہوں

      Hayaat & Afkaar-e Maulana Rumi

      The Life & Thoughts of Maulana Rumi - in Urdu.

      Sawaneh Maulana Room (Urdu)

      سوانح مولانا روم - مولانا شبلی نعمانی

      A full biography of Maulana Rumi in Urdu by the eminent 20th century scholar of Indian Subcontinent, Maulana Shibli Nomani.

      A full biography of Maulana Rumi in Urdu by Shaykh Syed Asghar Husain.

      Dars-e Masnavi Maulana Room (Urdu)

      Contains Urdu explanations of Masnavi Maulana Rumi by Shah Hakeem Muhammad Akhtar who explains the lessons of Masnavi of Rumi in the light of Quran and Hadith.

      Contains Urdu explanations of Masnavi Maulana Rumi by Shah Hakeem Muhammad Akhtar.

      Contains Urdu explanations of the collective Sufi thoughts of Maulana Rumi.

      Ma'arif-e Mathnawi (Urdu)

      The Commentary of the Mathnawi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Shah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar.

      Ma'arif-e Mathnawi (English)

      The Commentary of the Mathnawi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in English) by Shah Hakim Muhammad Akhtar.

      The Commentary of the Mathnawi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Mufti Muhammad Naeem.

      Boostan-e Marifat (Sharh-e Masnavi Maulana Room)

      Vol.1| Vol.2| Vol.3 |

      The Commentary of the Masnavi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Maulana Abdul Majeed Khansahaib.

      Miftahul Uloom (Sharh-e Masnavi Maulana Room)

      The Commentary of the Masnavi of Hazrat Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (in Urdu) by Maulana Nazirsahib .

      Complete commentary of Masnavi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi in  Urdu (24 Volumes) by the eminent 20th century scholar of Indian Subcontinent, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi.

      Hikayat-e Rumi (Urdu) 
      حکایاتِ رومی- اردو

      Contains a collection of tales and fables from Maulana Rumi's Masnavi in Urdu.

      Hikayat-e Rumi - Urdu

      حکایاتِ رومی- اردو

      مولانا جلال الدین رومی قدس سرہ کی شہرہ آفاق مثنوی رومی سے نثری شکل میں منتخب حکایات و دروس

      Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi Aur Un Ki Kahaniyan (Urdu)

      A beautifully written and crafted history and biography of Maulana Rumi in Urdu by Prof. Muhammad Abul Khair Kashfi.

      Masnavi Maulana Room Ka Encyclopedia (Urdu)

      Soz wa Saaz-e Rumi (Urdu)

      Written by Pir Abdul Latif Khan Naqshbandi, it contains selected poems from Maulana Rumi's Masnavi with explanation - Urdu - 586 Pages.

      Maulana Rumi Ki Jamalyat (Urdu)

        ورڈ فائلٹیکسٹ فائل         

      "Professor Shakilu’r-Rahman needs no introduction to the scholars of Urdu literature. Author of numerous works on classical and modern Urdu literature, he has recently brought out a valuable book titled Maulana Rumi ki Jamalyat. The book comprises 12 chapters and each makes a fascinating reading.

      According to Shakilu’r-Rahman, Sufism is characterized by two distinctive trends, namely, beauty and romanticism; hence the author dwells on the abiding literary contribution of Maulana Rumi within this framework. It is love underneath the Sufi’s heart that is not only revelatory but also creative.

      Undoubtedly, Rumi brings home to us the supernal importance of looking beyond the external of the event or experience. Unless the exoteric and esoteric do not enter into a harmonious relationship, the Ultimate Truth will not reveal itself. Sama‘ of the dancing darwishes is not therefore music in the ordinary sense of the word but a creative process that makes the lover realize the beauty of his Creator. Knowledge of the Creator and the created thus gained is a wealth of immeasurable proportions. A gnostic (‘arif) is, indeed, nearer to Allah by virtue of the fragrance of his meaningful and creative existence.

      The merit of Shakilu’r-Rahman’s work lies in his lucid analysis of the artistic skills of a great spiritual teacher like Rumi. As he explains, Rumi seeks a happy blending of the exterior and inner life. It is man’s heart alone that is capable of seeing Light everywhere. And what enables heart to perform this feat is knowledge. Rumi stresses the superb importance of knowledge for understanding the realities of material world in conjunction with the spiritual dimension of one’s terrestrial existence. True knowledge broadens one’s vision and is a prerequisite for intellectual and inner equilibrium."

      The Life and Work of Jalaluddin Rumi by the eminent India-born scholar of Rumi, late Professor Afzal Iqbal (1923 -1994) is A MUST READ if you're interested in learning more about Maulana Rumi's life, works, and Sufi teachings. 

      Late Prof. Azfal Iqbal (1923 -1994) graduated with honors from the Government College Lahore in 1939. He then obtained an English and History MA, and a Philosophy PhD from the Punjab University. He served with the All India Radio and Radio Pakistan from 1942 to 1949. He was an authority on Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi. His books on Maulana Rumi include: 

            Peer O Mureed - Rumi and Iqbal 

      "Rumi and Iqbal bridge the past many centuries of Man’s endeavors in all the various realms of thought and intuition as well as his/her march through life life in the Light of Divine revelation. Nowhere else in the East or in the West, could we find such a wholesome fusion of the physical and the metaphysical, a mutually inclusive combination of the material and the moral, the hair splitting, dry pure reason, and the all encompassing love, as in Rumi and Iqbal."

      The Rumi saint, a guide with conscience bright,
      That train love and trance, does lead aright.
      Beyond the sun and moon, his homestead lies,
      With stay of galaxy his tent he ties.
      The Quran’s light is in his breast aflame, 
      His mirror, cup of Jamsheed puts to shame. 
      Resolve and trust make Momin’s dynamite,
      Whom ‘frenzy’; calls the man of purblind sight.
      That musician of pure breed has
      Thrown my being into tumult once again with his music.
      Said he: The people have become aware of the secrets,
      The East has awoken from its deep slumber;
      Destiny has given it new aspirations,
      And loosened its age-old chains.
      No one, O knower of the secrets of the West,
      Has experienced the fire of the West better than thee...

      Iqbal paying glowing tribute to Rumi in Farsi in the Introduction of his masterpiece, What should then be done O People of the East

      پس چہ بائد کرد اے اقوامِ شرق - علامہ اقبال

      Allama Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library

      Kuliyat-e Iqbal (Urdu)

      "One of the most satisfying marriages in world literature is the one between Islamic mystical (Sufi) experiences and teachings and poetry, which is capable of conveying these ideas in a manner that is as seductive as it is instructive. The mystical poetry written in Persian by famous figures such as Rumi (d. 1273), Sa'di (d. 1292), and Hafiz (d. 1389) is very well known both in the Persian original and in its celebrated and widely circulated translations. But mystical poetry is composed and enjoyed to no less a degree in other languages spoken by Muslims all over the world. There is a rich tradition of Sufi literary composition in Arabic which is often used as a source of inspiration by the best known Persian poets. Similarly, Ottoman Turkish and Urdu poetry derive much of their literary style from Persian and much of their content from both Arabic and Persian alongside their native Turkish and Indian cultures.

      Persian Sufi poetry and its derivative genres in Urdu and Ottoman Turkish are representatives of a highly literate court culture, and have traditionally enjoyed a limited audience outside these circles. Paralleling this "high culture" form of poetry there was a popular Sufi poetical literature in both Punjabi and other languages spoken by Indian Muslims (not to mention Arabic, vernacular Turkish, Kurdish, and many others}. This form of poetry was often viewed as too rustic to enjoy court patronage, and received none of the encouragement or rewards enjoyed by "high culture" poetry. It is therefore a testament to the innate talents of these popular Sufi poets and to the magnetic attraction of their poetry that for every Ottoman court poet like Sheyh Galip there is a Yunus Emre, and for every Mughal court figure like Mirza Ghalib there is a Sultan Bahu.

      In fact, it is these popular poets, writing in the vernaculars of their own people, who are more renowned. The average citizen of a small town in Anatolia may nor even be familiar with Sheyh Galip's name, but more than likely would know some of Yunus Emre's poetry by heart. Similarly, an ordinary citizen of the Punjab is unlikely to be familiar with Mirza Ghalib's work, but could be be moved to tears by listening to someone like Sultan Bahu.."

      Read entire paper below:
      Punjab Sufi Literature

      Biographies of Sufis of Sindh (in Urdu)

      Sufis of Sindh (in English)
              |PDF| ENGLISH | 228 PAGES|

      Masnavi Rumi - Complete Sindhi Translation

      Contains translation of Masnavi of Maulana Rumi - complete 6 volumes - in Sindhi prose. Translated by Muhammad Ramzan Maheri (840 pages)

      Tashbeehat-e Rumi (in Sindhi), contains Sufi stories from Masnavi of Maulana Rumi translated and shortened in prose.

      Rumi quote in Sindhi







      جامی، مکمل سوانح حیات، اردو ترجمہ

      Complete biography of Hazrat Maulana Abdul Rahman Jami Naqshbandi (1414-1498), one of the most prominent Sufi masters of the Naqshbandi Sufi Order, famous for his many Sufi books and his Persian mystical poetry.

      Nafahat-ul-Uns by Maulana Jami (Urdu)

      The famous book by Maulana Abdul Rahman Jami containing short biographies of about 625 Auliya (Sufi Saints).

      Lawa'ih by Maulana Jami (Urdu)

      Maulana Jami's major Sufi mystical prose work, Lawa'ih - لوایح‌ - or Treatise on Sufism. The renowned Persian thinker and poet 'Abd al-Rahman al-Jami (1414-92 CE) wrote his Flashes of Light (Lawa'ih) to explain "the intuitions and verities displayed on the pages of the hearts and minds of men of insight and divine knowledge." Each section of his work consists of a discussion in prose and a portion in verses. Jami provides one of the best, synthetic introductions to Sufi spirituality.

      Read Maulana Jami's major Sufi prose work, Lawa'ih - لوایح‌ - or Treatise on Sufism in English:

      Maulana Rumi's Masnavi Manavi 
      is the Quran in Persian language.
      I'm not saying that his excellency, 
      Maulana Rumi is a Prophet,
      but he sure does have a Book.
      Maulana Jami - My Translation

      مثنوي معنوي مولوي
      هست قرآن درزبان پهلوي
      من نمي گويم كه آن عالي جناب
      هست پيغمبر، ولي دارد كتاب
       حضرت نور الدین عبدالرحمن جامی

      "Nuruddin Abdul Rahman Jami (1414-1492) was a Persian poet, scholar, and Sufi mystic. He wrote lyrical poems and odes, seven romantic or didactic Masnavi (rhyming couplets), such as `Yusuf u Zulaikha` and `Salaman and Absal`, and many other works. Over almost fifty years, Jami turned his hand to every genre of Persian poetry and penned numerous treatises on a wide range of topics in the humanities and religious sciences. Jami is considered one of the greatest Persian poets of all time and one of the last great Sufi poets. The author of about 87 books and countless letters, Jami wrote history, philosophy and theology, although he is best known in the West for his verse. Included in the larger work Haft Awrang (“Seven Thrones”), Jami’s poem “Yusuf and Zulaykha” retells the story of Jacob’s son Joseph and Potiphar’s wife."

      "Jami (1414-1492), a scholar and mystic, is considered by many to be one of the greatest Persian poets of the 15th century. This volume, edited by F. Hadland Davis and first published in 1908, contains selections from some of Jami's best-known works. "Salaman and Absal" examines the earthly love ("the love that binds and fetters and is corruptible") of the eponymous star-crossed lovers and contrasts it with "incorruptible" celestial love. The "Lawa'ih" is a treatise on Sufism. "Yusuf and Zulaikha" tells of Zulaikha's unrequited love for Yusuf, and the "Baharistan" is a book of verse and prose written as a series of eight "gardens." A brief biography of Jami and some additional information on each of the selections are included in this timeless work. FREDERICK HADLAND DAVIS is also the author of The Persian Mystics: Jalalu'd-Din Rumi (1907)."

      Jami in Indo-Muslim World, c. Sixteenth-Nineteenth Centuries

      Muzaffar Alam (University of Chicago)

      "Jami figures as an integral part of the world of the Indo-Muslim culture. Jamali Dihlawi (d.1536), a noted poet and the author of Siyar al-Arifin does not simply mention him. He makes special effort to emphasize his close relations with him. Jami was a legend in India already in his lifetime, he was invited to visit the country too. His poetry and writings figure in almost all the Great Mughals’ accounts. Babur remembers him as ‘the most outstanding poet’. The beauty of Jami’s poetry intoxicates Jahangir, from whose personal library we also have a most precious and elegant copy of his Yusuf Zulaikha. Verses from Jami’s poems were selected to set the composition of the poems for the Mughal poetic symposia. Even the ‘illiterate’ Akbar’s Hindavi verses are reported having been inspired by Jami’s poetry. And, this influence was not confined to the portals of the royal court alone. Jami’s writings form a significant part of the Mughal Indian scholarly practices as well. It is difficult to think of any Mughal Indian Sufi tazkira without a reference to Jami’s Nafahat al-Uns, for instance, while in several scholarly discussions Jami’s writings are noted and cited to buttress and illustrate the legitimacy and strength of one or the other preferred literary and religious positions. His poetry and writings constituted the critical parts of the prescribed and recommended texts for the madrasas and the Sufi centers. In the formation of the Indo-Muslim intellectual world, thus, both Jami the poet and Jami the Sufi-scholar commanded a notable position."

      Read entire paper below:

      Jāmī (1414-1492) in the Dār al-Islām and Beyond

      Guldasta e Manajat (Farsi with Urdu translation)

      "This is a collection of the famous Manajaat poems written by the great Sufi Shuyukh (Sufi Masters). The original Arabic or Farsi poems are given, with translation in Urdu by Maulana Zawwar Hussain Shah Naqshbandi. These poems, or at least a few verses from them, are much popular in Sufi circles and gatherings and are often recited in prayers."

      "Hafiz of Shiraz (1325 - 1390)  is the greatest Persian poet. The poetry of Hafiz is erotic yet spiritual, both sensual and symbolic, full of images of wine and the tavern, of the Beloved, of nightingales and roses."

      Hafiz is drunk in many different ways—
      Drunk with the Infinite. Drunk with the Divine.
      Drunk with music, and drunk with many a lovely face.
      But above all, Hafiz is drunk with fine read wine!
                                     Hafiz Shirazi

      "Khwajah Shams al-Din Mohammad Hafiz Shirazi, the shining star of the rich Persian literature, was born in Shiraz in around 725/1325. He presented his great Gnostic and poetic services to the Persian literature and Iranian culture during the 77 years of his prolific life.
      Hafiz created the best literary and Gnostic concepts in the form of eloquent and pithy lyrics. His concepts surpassed those of other contemporary philosophers, thinkers and scholars. His marvelous poems, not complying with the existing norms of his time, contributed a valuable and unique treasure to the Persian literature. He made excellent use of allusions, metaphors, parables and other figures of speech, never achieved before or after him.
      Hafiz is one of the rare poets capable of expressing the lovers' grief, the feelings of burning butterflies, a candle's sigh and a nightingale's love with great eloquence. He has preserved his words in an ocean of accessible and unique definitions and images, which are an honor for the Persian culture. From his large collection of poems, nearly 400 well-known verses and lyrics has so far been rewritten and printed thousands of times and translated into tens of other languages. Hafiz died in 803 AH. He was buried adjacent to the public prayer ground in a suburb of Shiraz. His shrine is the place of pilgrimage for the yearning mystics, lovers of poetic perfection and the seekers of truth and humanism.
      The poetic heritage of Hafiz includes approximately 4000-5000 verses, 400-500 lyric-poems, several long elegies, short couplets and a few pieces of 9th century inscriptions. His lyrics, attributed to divine grace and the complete messages of the great Qoran, have always been held in great esteem by Persian speakers, enthusiasts and Muslims. People's respect for this great poet is so great that his Divan is found in almost every house. Before beginning any new venture, or when hesitant about any particular decision, people consult his Divan to seek a convincing answer, which they often find."

      Divan-e Hafiz Shirazi - Farsi with Urdu Translation

      Translated by Qazi Sajjad Hussain

      دیوان حافظ مع اردو ترجمہ
      Divan-e Hafiz Shirazi - Urdu

      "Hafiz is a famous Persian poet hailing from Iran. He is a maestro of classical Persian lyricism. This book carries his Persian poetry with Urdu translation. This anthology has been designed artistically and Urdu translation appears beneath each Persian stanza. A long introduction with commentary on each page of the anthology makes it a richer collection."

      Hayat-e Hafiz  - Urdu

      By Prof. Aslam Jairajpuri

       حیات حافظ

      علامہ اسلم جیراجپوری

      Full biography of Khwaja Hafiz Shirazi in Urdu by the eminent 20th century Muslim scholar of India, late Prof. Aslam Jairajpuri (1882-1955).

      شکر شکن شوند ھمہ طوطیانِ ھند
      زین قندِ پارسی کہ بہ بنگالہ میرود
      حافـظ شیرازی

      All the parrots of India will become sweet-talkers
      By this sweet Farsi being shipped to Bengal!
                                                           Hafiz Shirazi

      "After Sa’di, the great moralist, Shiraz produced another literary genius in the person of Shams al-Din Muhammad better known as Hafiz. Hafiz Shirazi was a great personality of his time in the realm of Persian poetry. His verses are marked with freshness of thought, simplicity of diction, sweetness of language and beautiful ideas. His name and fame spread beyond the border of Iran and, as a result, he was introduced to the European world also through the translation of his Persian Ghazals. The historians are of the opinion that he was invited by different rulers of the Muslim world. His contemporary Sultan of Bengal, Ghiyath al-Din A’zam Shah (792-812/1389-1409) was also among those who appreciated his sweet and sonorous Persian verses. He was son of Sikandar Shah, an independent Sultan of Ilyas Shahi Dynasty of Bengal. He was not only a great lover of art and Persian Literature but also a patron of poets and scholars. The circumstances leading to the correspondence of Sultan Ghiyath al-Din A’zam Shah with Hafiz Shirazi are as follows.."

      Read Entire Papers Below:

      The Shrine of Ali Hujwiri - better known in India and Pakistan as Data Ganj Bakhsh - in Lahore, Pakistan. The eminent 11th century Persian Sufi master, Ali Hujwiri or Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh is the founder of Sufism in Indian Subcontinent.  

      The Shrine of founder of 12th century Chishti Sufi Order in Indi, Moinuddin Chishti - better known as Hazrat Gharib Nawaz - in Ajmer, India.

      The Sarcophagus of founder of 12th century Chishti Sufi Order in India, Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India.

      Emperor Jehangir's visit to the Shrine of Moinuddin Chishti at Ajmer, India - Ca.1613.

      Gathering of the Sufis in India, 11th century miniature.

      Gathering of the Sufis in India, 17th century miniature.

      "India has always been a land of great saints and free thinkers, which has been assimilating in its fold various cultures and thoughts from time to time. It is the land of ancient wisdom, where Sufism in its true spirit has flourished from time immemorial.  However, in the current context of Sufism, it could be worthwhile to mention that Islam entered into India through the Sea route, through the land route from Persia into Sind and through the Khyber Pass.  It is believed that the Sufis must have also used these routes, which were used by the Arab traders and military commanders.

      The first great Sufi saint to visit India (undivided) was Ali el-Hujwiri popularly known in India as Data Ganj Bakhsh. He was a disciple of Muhammad al-Hasan al Khuttali who was connected with Junayad of Baghdad.  He came to be known as Data Ganj Bakhsh after being addressed so at his tomb by Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti, the great Sufi saint of the Chishti order. Ali el-Hujwiri is considered to be the first authoritative Sufi writer who wrote several books on Sufism. His most famous book is Kashfu’l Mahjub, the first book on mysticism in the Persian language. Born in Ghazna in Afghanistan, around 1000 AD, he travelled from Syria to Turkistan and from the Indus to the Caspian Sea. During his journeys, he came across many saints and had deliberations with them. He received knowledge both from Abul Qasim Gurgani, a great Sufi Master of the Naqshbandi Order and Khwaja Muzaffar.

      His Shaikh asked him to go and settle in Lahore. According to the description in Fuwaidu’l-Fuwad (a compilation of the sayings of great Sufi Master Khwaja Nizamuddin-Auliya of the Chishti Order) he was initially reluctant to go to Lahore as one of his co-disciples Shaikh Hasan Zanjani was already there. On insistence by his Master, he proceeded to Lahore. On entering the city of Lahore he witnessed the burial of Shaikh Hasan Zanjani, who had just passed away. He settled near Bhati Gate in Lahore, where his tomb is situated.

      Ali el-Hujwiri continued to be greatly revered by all the saints of India, even after his death.  Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti is believed to have paid a visit and offered prayers at his tomb on his arrival to India. It was during this visit that he paid respects to Ali el-Hujwiri by addressing him as ‘Ganj Baksh’ i.e. the munificent one which also meant ‘Data’ (giver) in Hindi, thus he came to be popularly known thereafter as ‘Data Ganj Baksh’..."

      Read Full Papers Below:

                   |Word |30 Pages|English|

                    |Word| 63 Pages| English|

      Allah Walay (Aulia Allah) - Urdu

      الله والی - اولیای کرام کی حالات زندگی

      "Above Urdu book, Allah Walay (Aulia Allah) by Professor Khalid Perviz contains full biographies of the following eminent Sufi saints and sages of Indian Subcontinent:  Khwaja Moinuddin Shishti, Bahauddin Zakariya, Data Ganj Bakhsh - Ali Hujwiri, Baba Fariduddin - Ganjshakar, Nizamuddin Auliya, and Mian Mir of Lahore."

      Rumi & Muin: Burning in the Love of God 

      "Contains the Sufi Poetry of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi & Hazrat Muinuddin Chishti translated from Persian or Farsi to English by Irshad Alam who has also embedded the original Farsi verses of both Sufi sages along with his beautiful English translations."

      Rumi Poems in Hindi

      "This jukebox features the album 'Rumi - Love at Its Zenith' presenting the first-time ever translation of Rumi's ecstatic poems in Hindi, mesmerisingly narrated by Anandmurti Gurumaa, with the hypnotic music of Ney-Flute. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi comes alive in these entrancing, enchanting, exhilarating yet poignant narrations. Rumi's poetry pierces through the heart and makes one fervently long for the beloved. It unfolds such great wisdom that takes firm root in the fertile soil of the heart blossoming in love and longing for the divine."

      Rumi Love Poems in Hindi

      Rumi Love Poems in Hindi: Prem Ka Chhalakta Jaam

      "This glorious book, 'Rumi Love Poems in Hindi: Prem Ka Chhalakta Jaam' is a collection of mystical love poems of the Sufi mystic of 13th century Hazrat Maulana Jelaleddin Rumi translated, for the first time ever, in Hindi by the 21 st century mystic Anandmurti Gurumaa. These beautiful renderings are selected from the ocean of love, longing, and passionate poetry of Rumi which melts the heart and inspires the soul to soar higher in ecstasy. It transposes one into the mystical world of the infinite."

      Rumi Masnavi in Hindi

      Jalalauddina Rumi krta Masanavi (Hindi Edition)

      "Hindi translation of the Persian poem by Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi, 1207-1273, Persian poet; based on English edition by Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, 1868-1945."

      Rumi (in Hindi)

      by Abhay Tiwari


      आज के करीब आठ सौ वर्ष पहले जन्मे रूमी ने धर्म, देश और काल की सभी बाधाओं को लांघ कर अपनी रुबाइयों और ग़ज़लों से ऐसा सूफ़ीवाद फैलाया कि वे संसार के सभी देशों में, विशेषकर अमेरिका में, सबसे अधिक पढ़े जाने वाले कवि माने जाते हैं। उनका सूफ़ियाना कलाम सैकड़ों वर्षों से लोकप्रिय है। उनके शब्दों ने विभिन्न संस्कृतियों वाले पाठकों के मन को एक समान छुआ है। आध्यात्मिक प्रेम के सहज अतिरेक और उसके वैभव से जितना समृद्ध हमें रूमी ने किया है, उतना और कोई नहीं कर सका है।

      प्रस्तुत संकलन में वे ही रचनाएँ चुनी गई हैं, जिनमें मौलिक रचनाओं का स्पंदन है तथा जो गहरे विवेक का सौन्दर्य और रसास्वादन हमें देती हैं। -

      Rumi Quotes in Hindi

      "If words come out of the Heart, they will enter the Heart." Rumi.

      "Once the slave in you disappears, you are the king of kings."  Rumi.

      For more Rumi Quotes in Hindi, please visit the outstanding blog: Hindi Thoughts by Rumi

      Rumi Life & Poetry in Hindi

      Kalame Rumi - in Hindi

      Kalame Rumi by Abhay Tiwari covers the life, thoughts, and poetry of Rumi in Hindi.

      "Shah Wali Ullah divides Sufism into four epochs, though the four historical epochs were not mutually exclusive. There was considerable overlap. The first epoch began with the prophet and his companions and extended until the time of Junaid of Baghdad. According to Yusuf Husain, the Sufis of the first two centuries of Hijrah were ascetics, who laid great stress on the principles of Tauba and Tawakkul. Their contemplation remained confined within the limits of the Quran and the practice of the prophet.

      The second epoch started during Junaid’s time. The Sufis of this period lived in a state of continued meditation and contemplation. This resulted in intuitive insights and intense spiritual experiences that could be expressed only symbolically or in unusual phrases. They were so emotionally affected by “sama’” that they swooned or tore their clothes in ecstasy. In this period the Sufis were better organized and were divided into sects. Sufi masters now began to send their disciples to distant lands. Many eminent Sufis also moved to India.

      The third epoch started from the advent of Shaikh Abu Said Ibn Abdul Khair and Shaikh Abul Hasan Kharaqani. The Sufis of the period live in a state of ecstasy, which led to “Tawajjuh” (spiritual telepathy). In contemplating the union of temporal and eternal their individuality dissolved, and they even ignored their regular religious practices.

      The fourth began with the birth of Shaikh Akbar Muhiyuddin Ibn al-‘Arabi (1165-1240 AD), when the Sufis discovered the theory of the five stages of the descent from “Wajibul Wujud” (Necessary Being), i.e. Ahadiyya (Essence of Primal One), Wahdaniyya (Unity of God), sphere of Arwah (sphere of Infinite Forms), sphere of Misal (Similitude or Angelic Forms), sphere of Ajsam (Bodies of Physical World).

      Before reaching India, the movement of Tasawwuf had reached the highest point of its development in the twelfth century. After the conquest of northern India by the Muslims, various Sufi orders were established, in particular, the Chisti and Suhrawardiyya orders. The orders of Qadiri, Naqshabandi, Shuttari, Madari ect, also represented and functioned on more or less the same lines. The Sufi who left an indelible mark both on India and on the history of Sufism was Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Usman al-Hujwiri, known as Data Ganj Bakhsh, who reached Lahore in 1035 AD. He wrote Kashful Mahjub in Persian, contains biographies, thought and practices of Sufis from the prophet Muhammad’s day to his own time.

      The order of the Chistis, founded by Khawaja Abdal Chisti (d. 966 AD), was introduced into India by Khawaja Muinuddin Chisti. He was born in Sistan in 1143 AD. He traveled widely in Islamic countries and came to Harun, a town in Nishapur, and became the disciple of Khawaja Usman Haruni, a famous saint of the Chisti order, who directed him to settle in India. Khawaja Muinuddin arrived in India in 1190 AD. , And first proceeded to Lahore, where he spent some times in meditation at the tomb of Ali Hujwiri. The surviving sayings of the Khawaja show that his life’s mission was to inculcate piety, humility, and devotion to God.

      The Chisti mystics believed in the spiritual value of music and patronized professional singers, whatever their caste or religion might be. Khawaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, the successor of Muinuddin died in a state of ecstasy while listening to music.

      Another Khawaja Muinuddin’s disciple, Shaikh Hamiduddin made Nagaur (Rajasthan) the chief Chistiyya order. He was then succeeded by his grandson Fariduddin Mahmud. One of Shaikh Farid’s disciples, Khawaja Ziyauddin Nakhshabi was a famous scholar who translated Chintamani Bhatta’s Suka-Saptati into Persian from Sanskrit and gave the title Tuti Nama.

      Of the Khawaja Muinuddin’s disciples, Shaikh Fariduddin Ganjshakar or Baba Farid was very celebrated. He settled in Ajodhan and built his Jamaat Khana. Baba’s successor was Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya (1238-1325 AD), who came from Badaun but had settled in Delhi. Under Khawaja Nizamuddin, Chistiyya order became the dominant Sufi silsila in India. The collection of his conversation known as “Fawaid al-Fuad” compiled by his disciple, Amir Hasan. From him began the Chistiyya Nizamiyya, while Alauddin Sabir of Kalyar, another disciple of Baba Farid, led Chistiyya Sabiriyya.

      Nizamuddin, known also as Mehboob Ilahi, stressed on the motive of love, which leads to the realization of God. He extended his love of God to the love of humanity without which the former would be incomplete. After Nizamuddin, some Chisti saints became the successors one after the other. They are Nasiruddin Chiragh Dahlavi, his malfuzat known as “Khairul Majalis”, Sayyid Muhammad Gesudaraz, who wrote “Khatairu al-Quds”, “Asma al-Asrar”, “Sharh Risala-e-Qushairi”, ect. Gesudaraz earlier works are based on Wahdatu al-Wujud, but was later converted to Wahdat al-Shuhud doctrines.

      Beside Chistiyya, Suhrawardiyya sisila also have played significant role in the spread of sufi doctrines in India. The founder, Shaikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi, the author of “Awarif al-Ma’arif”, directed his disciple Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya of Multan (1182-1262 AD) to make Multan the center of his activity. Iltutmish appointed him as Shaikhul Islam after the invasion of Multan and topple its ruler, Qabacha. During the Mongol invasion he became the peace negotiator between invaders and Muslim army.

      Bahauddin’s successor was his son Shaikh Sadruddin ‘Arif. His disciple, Amir Husayn, the author of “Zad- al-Musafirin”, wrote several works on the doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud. Shaikh Arif’s son and caliph, Shaikh Ruknuddin was highly respected by the Delhi Sultans from ‘Alauddin Khalji to Muhammad Ibn Tughlug.

      After the death of Shaikh Ruknuddin the Suhrawardiyya silsila declined in Multan but became popular in other provinces like Uch, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir and even Delhi. It was revitalized by Sayyid Jalaluddin Bukhari known as Makhdum Jahaniyan, the world traveler. He was puritan and strongly objected the Hindu influences to Muslim social and religious practices.

      Another contemporary mystic who is worthy of mention was Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya Manairi (d. 1380 AD). He belonged to the Firdausia order, a branch of Suhrawardiyya. He compiled several books, i.e. “Fawaid al-Muridin”, “Irshadat al-Talibin”,”Rahat al-Qulub”, ect.

      Qadiri order was founded by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Gilani of Baghdad (d. 1166 AD). The first who introduced it to India was Sayyid Muhammad Gilani Qodiri of Aleppo, who later settled in Uch where he died in 1517 AD. Other famous mystics of Qadiri order were and Shaikh Abdul Ma’ali of Lahore. Shaikh Abdul Haq Muahddis Dahlawi wrote many important books one of them was “Akhbar al-Akhyar”. Dara Shukoh, the son of Shah Jahan was a devotee of Qadiri order. He wrote “Safinat al-Awliya” and “Sakinat al-Awliya” on the mystics biographies.

      Naqshabandi order seems to be destined to accept the challenge flung against orthodox Islam in India by the upholders of the doctrine of the “Unity of Being”, and the electicism of Akbar. Naqshabandi order is the offshoot of Khwajagan order. Khwajagan order was founded in Turkistan by Khwaja Ahmad Ata’ Yaswi. The order was popularized by Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshabandi (d. 1388 AD). After him the order was known as Naqshabandi. He emphasized to follow the sunnah. The order was introduced to India by Khwaja Baqi’ Billah (1563-1603 AD) and popularized in India by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624 AD), known as Mujaddid Alf Thani. After him the order named Naqshabandiyya Mujaddidiyya.

      Rejecting the “Wahdat al-Wujud” (Unity of Being) he expounded the doctrine of “Wahdat al-Shuhud” (Apparantism). Shah Wali Ullah, another mystic of Naqshabandi order tried to compromise both the two doctrines. In his treatise “Faislatul Wahdatul Wujud wa al-Shuhud” he stood as an arbiter on the dispute of both doctrines. But in other occasion he observed in his book “Tafhimat Ilahia”, that “Apparantism” is higher than that of the “Unity of Being”.


      "There is a shrine in Lahore [Pakistan] that attracts the kings and rulers and common people alike. This practice has persisted for last many centuries. The man lying in his shrine was embraced by all communities including the Hindus and Sikhs and Parsees. Even after the passage of 966 years, his fame has risen everyday, evermore. Even after his demise, he is revered as a saint, and his tomb is a place of seeking spiritual blessings. Nowadays we connect with him, Ali Hujwiri, chiefly through his masterpiece, Kashf-ul-Mahjub. The book brought the author everlasting reverence and fame.According to R A Nicholson, Hujwiri was born in the last decade of the tenth century or in the first decade of the eleventh century in Ghazna, now in Afghanistan.

      Apart from Kashf-ul-Mahjub, according to his own statement, Hujwiri was the author of another nine books, none of which have survived. R. A. Nicholoson has mentioned them by name. Kashf-ul-Mahjub was written in Lahore, in response to the request of a certain God-seeker Abu Saeed, a relative or fellow-townsman of the author. During the composition of the book, the writer was hindered by the lack of the books which were left in his hometown. Still he – making use of his encyclopedic knowledge – managed to produce a book which excelled Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushairi's great work on Sufism ar-Risala al-Qushairiyya. Al-Qushairi was a Hujwiri's contemporary.

       Kashf-ul-Mahjub deals with the complete system of Sufism, setting out and discussing its principles and practices. An early orthodox work on tasawwuf in Persian, Kashf-ul-Mahjub includes references to other mystic writers and their works. The work sheds light on the history, ideology and practice of Sufism. The author offers the traveller on the Path (salik) universal and timeless advice on belief, contemplation, generosity, spiritual courtesy, prayer, almsgiving, companionship, love and purification from foulness. In addition, he helps us distinguish false spirituality and false guides from the real, a discernment just as significant today as then.

      This classic text contains brief biographies of the eminent saints of the past and the present, including Fudail ibn Iyaz, the robber who becomes a great spiritual director; Ibrahim ibn Adham, the prince who renounces everything when the divine call found way to his heart; Malik ibn Dinar, who is awoken to the spiritual reality by a voice from the unseen; and Habib Ra'i, whose sheep are looked after by his wolf. The book is a rich store of anecdotes. Stories built around their lives arouse the interest of the reader. Their words of wisdom help one in inner awakening.

      R A Nicholson, an eminent English Orientalist, writes in the preface of Kashf-ul-Mahjub, which he rendered into English: "It … has the merit … of bringing us into immediate touch with the author himself, his views, experiences, and adventures, while incidentally it throws light on the manners of dervishes in various parts of the Muslim world. His exposition of the Sufi doctrine and practice is distinguished not only by wide learning and firsthand knowledge but also by the strongly personal character impressed on everything he writes."

      translated by Reynold A. Nicholson

      Kashf al-Mahjoob (کشف المحجوب)--Revelation of Mystery-- is the oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism written by the eminent 11th century Afghan-born Sufi master, Ali Hujwiri better known as Hazrat Data Ganj-Bakhsh (Giver of Treasures) in Indian Subcontinent. The English translation by Prof. R.A. Nicholson, the renowned orientalist and teacher of Cambridge University, published in1911, is, in spite of being an abridged version, still unsurpassed in it's clear and faithful rendering of the original.

      The Kashf al-Mahjoob 
      translated by Reynold A. Nicholson

      "Al-Hujwiri came from Ghazna, now in Afghanistan, then the capital of the mighty Ghaznavid Empire. He was a Sufi mystic who travelled widely in the Middle East and Transoxiana. The Kashf al-Muhjub was probably written in Lahore, where he is buried, not long before his death in about 1074. One of the oldest Sufi works in Persian, it is a substantial treatise aiming to set forth a complete system of Sufism. This is achieved partly by the discussion of acts and sayings of the great figures of the past, partly by discussion of features of doctrine and practice and the examination of the different views adopted by different Sufi Schools. It is enlivened by episodes from the author's own experience."

      The Kashf al-Mahjoob - the oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism
      translated by Reynold A. Nicholson

      Revelation of Mystery (Kashf Al Mahjub)

      translated by Muhammad Ashraf Javed

      "Kashaf al-Mahjub is one of the oldest Persian treatises on Mysticism. It was written around mid of eleventh century. The original work is in Persian and it has been translated into many Oriental and European languages. The Manuscripts of the Kashaf al-Mahjub are preserved in several Asian and European libraries which includes 900 years old manuscripts also. The author composed many titles to which he has occasion to refer in the Kashaf al-Mahjub but none of his works except Kashaf al-Mahjub have been preserved.

      Abu al-Hasan Ali b. Uthman b. Abi Ali al-Jullabi al-Ghaznavi al-Hujwiri was born in a noble family of Ghazna which was renowned for their piety and countenance. He was a Sunni Hanafite and in mystic way followed Junaid and was the disciple of Abu al-Fadl Muhammad b. al Hasan al-Khuttali. In his novitiate days he widely traveled in most parts of the Islamic Empire and graced himself with the knowledge of mystic path. He met many highly reputed Sheikhs of his time and benefited from their experiences. For some time he had a settled life in Iraq, where he ran deeply into debt. Finally, around 431 A.H. in the reign of Mahmud Ghaznavi he along with Abu Said Hujwiri and Hammad Sarkhasi came to Lahore and ended his days in that city. He died in 465 A.H. and buried there. His tomb at Lahore is visited by the multitudes that go there to seek their desires. The prayers are granted there. He is popularly remembered as Data Gang Baksh (the generous).

      The Kashf al-Mahjub, belongs to the later years of the author’s life, and was written on the request of a fellow-townsman, Abu Said al-Hujwiri. Its object seems to set forth a complete system of Sufism, and the author’s attitude throughout remains that of a teacher instructing a student. Even the biographical section of the work is largely expository. Before stating his own view the author examines the current opinions on the same topic and refutes them if necessary. The discussion of mystical problems and controversies is enlivened by many illustrations drawn from his personal experiences. The author keeping in mind the ordinary seeker has avoided any philosophical and intellectual discussion and in a very simple and Quranic way has desired seekers to follow the faith in their true spirit.

      Ali Hujwiri's Revelation of Mystery maintains equilibrium in Doctrine and Mysticism. The center point of Kashaf al-Mahjub is that the Man should annihilate Self in the essence of the Truth to such an extent that none of his/her acts should take place through his/her own thoughts or efforts, rather it should emerge as acts of the Divine and his/her own condition should be mere of a puppet which only works through the movements of string controlled by the Owner [God].

      It will not be a boasting opinion to mention Kashaf al-Mahjub as the primary source on the laws of mysticism. It elaborates all the stages of the Path of Sufism in such a manner that in the words of the author the seeker studying and following the book would not need the auspicious guidance of a Sheikh (spiritual guide)."

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - فارسی

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - فارسی

      علی ابن عثمان جُلّابی هُجویری غزنوی (ولادت: اواخر سدهٔ چهارم؛ جُلّاب در غزنه ‐ وفات: حدود سال ۴۷۰هجری قمری ؛ لاهور) از بزرگان صوفیه است. کتاب معروف وی «کشف‌المحجوب» از قدیم‌ترین و مهم‌ترین مراجع دربارهٔ تصوف به زبان فارسی است که عطار از آن در تذکر‌ة‌الاولیا فراوان بهره جسته است. نثر این کتاب از نمونه‌های شاخص نثر دورهٔ اول زبان فارسی است. از قرائن این گونه استنباط می‌شود که تألیف این کتاب پیش از ۴۶۵ قمری آغاز شده و پس از ۴۶۹ به پایان رسیده‌است

      کشف المحجوب' مصنف علی حجویری یاٰ حضرت داتا گنج بخش ٓ در نیم قاره هندوستان, نخستین کتابی است که درباره تصوف به زبان فارسی نوشته شده است

      ترجمه اردوو سندهی«کشف‌المحجوب» ازسید علی بن عثمان ہجویری لاہوری معروف به حضرت داتا گنج بخش درنیم قاره هند

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - اردو

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - اردو

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - اردو

      کتاب کشف المحجوب - سندهی

      سوانح حیات حضرت داتا گنج بخش - اردو

      سوانح عمری حضرت داتا گنج بخش - اردو

      سیرت - حضرت داتا گنج بخش - اردو

      مسلک - حضرت داتا گنج بخش - اردو

      فاتح قلوب - حضرت داتا گنج بخش - اردو

      I'm an infidel of Love,
      I don't care about the faith of Muslims!
      Every vein in my body has already turned into a string,
      I have no need for Muslims' cord and string.

      Go away from my bedside, you foolish physician!
      For a lover unwell with the sickness of Love,
      There is no cure except a glimpse of His Sight.

      If there is no captain to guide my ship,
      SO BE IT!
      I have my Lord Almighty as my Sea Captain.
      Who needs a ship's captain anyway?!

      People are murmuring behind my back: 
      Khusro is worshiping the Idols.
      YES I DO! YES I DO!
      I don't care about those kind of people!
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      کافر عشقم، مسلمانی مرا در کار نیست
      ہر رگ من تار گشتہ، حاجت زُنار نیست
      از سر بالین من برخیز ای نادان طبیب
      دردمند عشق را دارو بہ جز دیدار نیست
      ناخدا بر کشتی ما گر نباشد، گو مباش
      ما خدا داریم ما ناخدا در کار نیست
      خلق می‌گوید کہ خسرو بت‌پرستی می‌کند
      آری! آری! می‌کنم! با خلق ما را کار نیست
      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      I don't know what kind of place was it 
      Where I stayed last night

      I was surrounded by half-slaughtered victims of love, 
      Dancing around in sheer agony and ecstasy. 
      There was a nymph-like beauty,
      With cypress-like form and tulip-like face,
      Ruthlessly playing havoc 
      With the bleeding hearts of poor lovers. 
      God Himself was the Master of Ceremony
      In that Place-less gathering last night.

      O Khusro, 
      Even Muhammad was shedding light like a candle, 
      In that magical place where I was invited last night. 
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      The news came to me tonight
      That you my beloved might be coming over .
      I'd sacrifice my head upon the road
      That you might be riding on tonight.

      All the gazelles of the desert
      Have laid their heads upon their hands,
      Hoping one day you might show up

      To hunt them all down.

      My life is barely hanging on my lips,
      Come visit me so I can remain alive.
      What good will it do
      If you show up but I'm already gone?

      The seductive memories of our love
      Shall not leave you unmoved,
      Even if you don't show up at my funeral
      You will one day visit my graveside.

      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      خبرم رسيد امشب كه نگار خواهي آمد
      سر من فداي راهي كه سوار خواهي آمد
      به لبم رسيده جانم، تو بيا كه زنده مانم
      پس از آن‌كه من نمانم، به‌چه كار خواهي آمد
      غم و قصه فراقت بكشد چنان كه دائم
      اگرم چو بخت روزي به‌كنار خواهي آمد
      منم و دلي و آهي، ره تو درون اين دل
      مرو ايمن اندر اين ره كه فگار خواهي آمد
      همه آهوان صحرا سر خود گرفته بر كف
      به‌اميد آن‌كه روزي به شكار خواهي آمد
      كششي كه عشق دارد، نگذاردت بدينسان
      به‌جنازه گر نيايي، به مزار خواهي آمد

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      As a devout Hindu Brahman,
      I know you've already rejected ten times
      My Islamic conversion attempts!
      But I'm so lost when it comes to finding 
      My way to my own faith,
      That I can't even find my way
      To go and worship your Idols!
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      ای برهمن بار ده رد کرده یی اسلام مرا
      با چو من گمراه را در پیش بت هم راه نیست

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      Take a step deep inside your own soul
      Before setting foot on the Alley of Friend.
      For the seekers traveling on the Path of Love
      There is no other advice more worthy than this.
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      یک قدم بر جان خود نه یک قدم در کوی دوست
      این نکوتر رهروان عشق را گفتار نیست

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      So much for living all our lives
      Like good devout Muslims.
      O Lord what happened,
      This whole world is full of Infidels?!
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      آنچه کرد مسلمانی آخر چه شد
      این چه شد یارب جهان کافر گرفت

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      O pious Imam,
      If you're planning on saying a nice prayer for me,
      Then say it like this:
      May that wanderer of the Alley of Idols
      Remain even more wanderer!
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      گر ای ذاهد دعای خیر میگویی مرا این گو
      که آن آواره یی کوی بتان آواره تر بادا

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      Even a non-Muslim won't do
      What you've done to my heart.
      I didn't know if it's halal in Islam
      To break a Muslim's heart like that!
      Amir Khusro - My Translation

      کافر نکند با دل من آنچه تو کردی
      یعنی که در اسلام روا باشد از اینها

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      "Amir Khusro—poet, courtier, Sufi mystic, musician— straddled the worlds of politics and religion and helped forge a distinctive synthesis of Muslim and Hindu cultures. His poetry in Persian appealed equally to the Delhi Sultans and to his Sufi Sheikh, Nizamuddin Auliya. It was appreciated not only in India, where his Hindavi poetry has survived through a lively oral tradition, but also across a cosmopolitan Persianate world that stretched from Turkey to Bengal.

      Known as the 'Tuti Hind' - 'Parrot of India', Amir Khusro (1253-1325) is considered as India's foremost Sufi poet using the Persian language as the medium of his poetry. Khusro's father had also hailed from the same city where Maulana Rumi was born, Balkh (in northern Afghanistan near Mazra-e Sharif), and his mother was from Delhi, India. Beside writing mystical poetry in numerous languages, Amir Khusro is also credited as the founding father of the world famous Sufi Qawwali Music of Indian Subcontinent. From his early days, Khusro was attracted to Persian literature, especially the poetry of the poet of Ganja, Nizami. Emulating the poetry of Nizami Ganjavi, he himself, over the years became one of the most celebrated Sufi poets of his day. Amir Khusro was also a natural born musician. He mastered the art of Indian music at a very early age and went on to perfect it. Fluent in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Sanskrit, as well as other regional Indian dialects, Amir Khusro remains as one of the most respected and revered medieval Persian speaking Sufi poets of india. 

      Altogether Amir Khusrau has written several multi-volume works, a collection of lyrics, and three prose works. His multi-volume collection the Panj Ganj (five treasures), with the following specification: 

      1) Tuhfat al-Saghir - 
      (Offering of a Minor): Youthful melodies, sonnets and odes composed when he was between sixteen to nineteen years of age.

      2) Wasat al-Hayat - 
      (The Middle of Life): Poems composed when the was between the ages of twenty and thirty-four.

      3) Ghurrat al-Kamal - 
      (The Prime of Perfection): Works he composed between the age of 34 and 43. A brief biography of the poet introduces the collection.

      4) Baqiyya-i Naqiyyah - 
      (The Rest / The Miscellaneous): Miscellany or old-age poems compiled at the age of 64, after Alauddin’s death.

      5) Nihayat al-Kamal - 
      (The Height of Wonders): Amir Khusrau's last poems, compiled probably a few weeks before his death.

      His other multi-collection, referred to as Samaniyyah Khusraviyyah (Eight Khusravi Mathnavis), includes:

      1) Ishquia / Mathnavi Duval Rani-Khizr Khan - (Romance of Duval Rani and Khizr Khan): deals with the love of Khizir Khan for the daughter of the Raj of Gujarat. The love story composed on request of Khizir Khan is prefaced with a brief history of the spread of the Islamic faith in India under the Ghurid dynasty. Ishquia is a tragic but one of his most beautiful love poems about Gujarat’s princess Duval and Alauddin’s son Khizr.

      2) Noh Sepehr - (Nine Spheres): a Mathnavi in nine chapters composed in honor of Qutb al-Din Mubarak Shah Khalaji. Nine Heavens is Khusro’s overall perceptions of India and its culture.

      3) Matla' al-Anwar - 
      (The Ascent of Lights): A treatise on Sufi thought along the line of Nazami's Makhzan al-Asrar.

      4) Shirin wa Khusro: An imitation of Nizami's Mathnavi of the same name. A scene in which the king invites the learned of the realm to his palace and discusses philosophical points with them is original to Amir Khusro.

      5) Majnun wa Layli: Also a poor imitation of Nizami's Mathnavi of the same name.

      6) A'ina-i Sikandari - (Alexander's Mirror): A continuation of Nizami's Mathnavi of the same name. Amir Khusro, however, deals mostly with Alexander's post-conquest train of thought and his death.

      7) Hasht Bihisht - (Eight Heaven): A response to Nizami's Haft Paikar.

      7) Ejaaz-e-Khusrovi (The Miracles of Khusro):  An assortment of Khusrau’s prose compiled by himself – has long treatise on topics such as Styles of writing, and secrets of governance.

      "Khusrau’s poetry has thrived for centuries and continues to he read and recited to this day. But despite his vast literary output, there is a dearth of translations of his work. In the Bazaar of Love offers new translations of Khusrau’s poems in Persian and Hindavi, many of which are being translated into English for the first time. Paul Losensky’s translations of Khusrau’s ghazals, including his mystical and romantic poems, comprise fresh renditions of old favourites while also bringing to light several little-known works. Sunil Sharma brings us many of Khusrau’s short poems, including those belonging to the qawwali repertoire, as well as a mixed prose-and-verse narration ‘The Romance of Duval Rani and Khizr Khan’.

      The first comprehensive selection of Amir Khusrau’s poetry, In the Bazaar of Love covers a wide range of genres and forms, evoking the magic of one of the best-loved poets of the Indian subcontinent."


      Amir Khusrau (1253—1325)—often also written as Khusraw or Khusro—was one of the greatest poets of medieval India, writing in both Persian, the courtly language of Muslims of the sultanate period, and Hindavi, the vernacular language of the Delhi area. Known as Tuti-yi Hind (Parrot of India) for his poetic eloquence and fluency in Persian, Amir Khusrau has stood as a major cultural icon in the history of Indian civilization for almost seven hundred years. He is especially remembered as the founder of the ‘Ganga—Jamni’ Hindustani culture which is a synthesis of Muslim and Hindu elements. He helped to give a distinctive character to Indian Islamic cultural traditions through his contributions to the fields of Indian classical music, Islamic mysticism (Sufism), South Asian Sufi music (qawwali), and Persian literature Significantly, he also contributed to the development of Hindavi, in which both modem Hindi and Urdu have their roots. Positioned at the juncture of two cultures, Amir Khusrau’s prodigious talents and prolific literary output make him one of the outstanding figures in Islamic, Indian, and indeed world cultural history.

      Amir Khusrau’s legacy is far more widespread than people realize, from his vast corpus of Persian poetry that continues to be read in the modern Persian-speaking world (Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan) to this day, to the devotional qawwalis that are performed and listened to in India, Pakistan, and beyond. He is rightly acknowledged as the best Indian poet to have written in Persian, and his influence on later Persian and Urdu literature was immense. In South Asia, he is revered for his contributions to music and mysticism but most people are familiar with only a small portion of his immense body of poetry and prose in Persian, or have no access to these works due to the language harrier.

      This has nor been Amir Khusrau’s fate alone. The Persianate world in which he lived, the entire area from Anatolia (now Turkey) to India, no longer exists as a cultural continuum. Though the ruling elite of these lands was mainly Turkish by ethnicity, the language of high culture was Persian, with Arabic serving as the sacred language of religion. But Persian ceased to be a language of learning in the Indian subcontinent during the British colonial period, and with the fragmentation of the Persianate world by the forces of modern nationalism, many poets who form part of the Indian Persian heritage have suffered a similar fate, including the nineteenth- century Chalib, who wrote prodigiously in Persian as well as in Urdu. However, Amir Khusrau’s Hindavi poetry and Persian poetry on Su13 themes are still part of a living and dynamic tradition.

      Amir Khusrau’s personality is shrouded in mystery and attempts to piece together his biography can be frustrating. Modern biographers have difficulty resolving the apparent conflict between his professional life as a courtier and his spiritual life as a mystic. As a courtier Khusrau would have had to overlook many morally dubious actions and practices on the part of his patrons, fur which he must have suffered some ethical conflict. Furthermore, while tradition credits Khusrau with a body of Hindavi poetry and the invention of several musical instruments, there is no written, documentary evidence to support this claim. Fortunately for us, there is quite a bit of biographical information in Amir Khusrau’s own writings and in numerous poetic and Sufi biographical narratives from throughout the medieval period. Although the information is not always reliable and the resulting picture of the poet seems one-dimensional or larger than life, it is more than we have for most other pre-modern poets. Getting to the ‘real’ Amir Khusrau challenges us to sort through an overwhelming number and variety of original sources, many unpublished, and to unravel the layers of cultural myth and legend that have shrouded his personality over the centuries.

      There are some remarkable parallels between Amir Khusrau’s life and that of the renowned Sufi poet, Jalaluddin Rumi (d. 1273), who lived a generation or two before him. As a result of the Mongol incursion into Central Asia Rumi fled westwards with his family and ended up in Konya, in what is now Turkey. Similarly, a couple of decades later, Khusrau’s family moved eastwards and ended up in India. Both poets had their origins in the region of Balkh in present-day Afghanistan. There are some salient differences in their biographies: Khusrau was born in India, to a Turkish father and Indian mother, and identified himself as an Indian; Rumi, ethnically Iranian, was born near Balkh, far from Konya, the city where he was to settle. Also, Khusrau was deeply involved in court life, and most of his Persian writing, whether poetry or prose, is of a panegyric or historical nature, whereas Rumi was not a court poet and his output is entirely mystical. Thus, it is appropriate that Khusrau is honored with the title Amir (Prince) and Rumi with Maulana (Our Master). Nevertheless, just as Rumi had a deep attachment to his spiritual companion Shams, Khusrau was devoted to Nizamuddin Auliya.

      In poem 35 in our collection, Khusrau uses Rumi’s characteristic closing signature ‘Silence’, as he rues his failure to turn fully to a life of religious devotion, Most importantly, both were poets of Central Asian origin who deeply influenced the practice of Sufism in their respective parts of the world through their emphasis on the mystical performance of music and dance, and the poetic language in which it was expressed. Both were immersed in the local cultures and wrote macaroni poetry, mixing Persian with local languages (Persian, Turkish, Greek and Arabic in Rumi’s ease; Persian and Hindavi in Amir Khusrau’s). Since both chose to write their poetry in Persian and authored a large body of ghazals on themes of love, there are many points of comparison from a literary point of view as well, although one must be sensitive to the different historical and social contexts in which they were active as poets."

      Khusro, the Indian Orpheus: A Hundred Odes - English

      "The translator, Shaida does something altogether breathtaking in the expansive and lovely poems found in Khusro, the Indian Orpheus, A Hundred Odes, a collection of one hundred translated poems by the Persian poet, Khusro. Fans of Rumi, the translations of Coleman Barks in particular, and Persian poets in general will delight in this current and timeless effort. First of its kind, a new generation of readers will revel in the passion, fervor and infatuation of love and love's playthings. Behold, an ancient voice sings a marvelously modern melody, in this first ever English translation of Khusro's verse. A poet born in 1252 AD has now been preserved, his couplets on task to anoint readers with pretty thoughts and pretty plans of love. Truly, lovers of romantic poetry are in for a treat."

      حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی دهلوی مشهور به طوطی هند, یکی از بزرگترین شاعران پارسیگوی قرن 14 میلادی هندوستان

      امیر خسرو دهلوی، طوطی خوش زبان هند

      گم شدم در سر آن کوی مجویید مرا
      او مراکشت شدم زنده مپو یید مرا
      بر درش مردم و آن خاک بر اعضای من است
      هم بدان خاک درآید و مشویید مرا
      عاشق و مستم و رسوایی خویشم هوس است
      هر چه خواهم که کنم هیچ مگویید مرا
      خسروم من گلی ازخون دل خود رسته
      خون من هست جگر سوز مبویید مرا 



      حضرت امیر خسرو کی تاریخ اردو زبان میں


      "By some accounts, 'Man Kunto Maula' is actually the very first Sufi Qawwali song composed and performed by the incomparable 14th century polyglot Sufi mystic, poet, and musician of Indian Subcontinent, Amir Khusro who is credited as the founding father of Sufi Qawwali Music. The lyrics of this amazing Sufi Qawali song belong precisely to Amir Khusro, and are directly referenced to the following Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), 'Man Kunto Maula, Fahaza Ali-un Maula'/ 'Whoever accepts me as his/her master, Ali is his/her master too.'"

      'مَن کُنتُ مَولاه فَهذا عَلیٌ مَولا' / 'هر که مولایش منم علی مولای اوست' 
      (رسول اللہ حضرت محمد مصطفی (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم

      "Man Kunto Maula", a part of a famous statement of the Seal of Prophet, upon him be holy benedictions, which is, "Man kunto maula, fa Ali-un Maula" - meaning 'Whoever accepts me as master, Ali is his master too'. This was made on returning back from the Last Pilgrimage of the Prophet (year 632, just months before his return to his Beloved Lord), he stopped at a place called Ghadir Khum and delivered a sermon. The statement therein for the Sufis is the confirmation of spiritual transmission in the path (leaving aside later politicized history related to it and giving rise of party of Ali, known as shiite e Ali).

      Just like Mary Magdalene and Thomas were the recipient of mystical esoteric knowledge of Christ, in Islam Imam Ali, may God ennoble his countenance and bless his soul, was one of the leading companion of the Prophet who received mystical esoteric knowledge from Prophet Muhammad. Thus a number of Sufi lineage goes back to the Prophet through Imam Ali in terms of transmission chain. The statement 'Man Kunto Maula' thus bear an archetypal significance in Islam spirituality where sufis view it as Prophet's public declaration of the transmission and declaring Ali as the bearer of the spiritual transmission. There are other famous saying which confirms high status of Imam Ali such as, "Ana Madinat al-'Ilm wa 'Aliyu Babuha", 'I am the city of gnosis (esoteric knowledge) and 'Ali is its gate'. Imam Ali is known to be a great gnostic who have perfected his realization. One of his gnostic utterances include, "I have seen my Lord with the eyes of my heart."

      Thus its seen in history that Imam Ali after the passing of the Prophet was more involved in transmitting the knowledge of truth and silently took up the role of a holy teacher. Maula Ali is considered to have acquired the Prophet’s qualities and attributes when he was transmitted the spiritual baraka. Imam Ali's love, noble emulation and devotion for the Prophet was such that sufi orders like the Chishtiyya considers Prophet Muhammad and Imam Ali as two expressions of one same mystical Reality.

      This particular Qawwali, Man Kunto Maula is perhaps the most popular Qawwali (author is Amir Khusrau) and if you happen to attend any Qawwali gathering anywhere in Indian Subcontinent, its very likely that this one will be sung for sure among others (its called Manqabat and dedicated to Imam Ali's noble memory). The song praises Imam Ali's bravery on the face of injustice and falsehood - and also praises his high spiritual rank.

      Below is its lyrics followed by approximate rendition in English:

      Shah-E-Mardaan, Shair-E-Yazdaan, 
      La Fata illa Ali,
      La Saif illa Zulfiqaar

      King of the brave, the Lion of God
      The Strength for The Lord,
      There is none like Ali,
      There is no sword like Zulfiqaar

      Man Kunto Maula
      Fa haza Ali-un Maula

      Whoever I am master to,
      Ali is his Master too.

      (Abstract Sufi Chants follows)

      Dara Dil E Dara Dil E Dar E Dani
      Hum Tum Tanana Nana, Tana Nana Ray
      Om Tum Tanana Nana, Tana Nana Ray
      Yalali Yalali ala, Yala Ray
      Tanana Tanana Tanana Tanana
      Tum Tanana Nana, Tana Nana Ray...

      Enter into the heart,
      Enter into the heart,
      Melt therein, You and me
      Sing inside in sweet melody.

      Maula Ali Maula 
      Maula Ali Maula 

      Master is Ali,
      Master is he

      Ali Shaah-e MardaaN, Imaam-ul-Kabiira
      ke ba’d az Nabii shud Bashiir-un-Naziira

      Ali is the king of men, the great spiritual leader,
      Cause after the Prophet he became
      the bearer of glad tidings and warner for mankind.*

      yeh sochna hi abass hae
      Kaha haha hae Ali?
      Jaha jaha hae haqiqat, uha uha hae Ali
      Idhar hae Zaat e Muhammad
      Udhar hae Zaat e Khuda
      Inhi lateef hijabon key dermayan hai Ali Maula, 
      Maula Ali Maula Maula Ali Maula, Maula Ali Maula 

      This shall suffice if you realize
      at which station is Ali.
      Wheresoever inner reality to be found,
      there will be found Ali.
      There is the mystery of Muhammad,
      Here is the mystery of Lord,
      and my master Ali is behind these sweet veils.

      Her Qalb Ali, Jism Ali, Jaan Ali Hai
      Mujh BeSar-O-Samaan Ka Samaan Ali Hai
      Imaan keh matalashi yehi imaan keh doon
      Iman To Yeh Hai Mera Imaan Ali Hai
      Ali Maula, Maula Ali Maula
      Maula Ali Maula, Maula Ali Maula

      In every heart is Ali, face is Ali, my life is in Ali
      for this poor one, my only possession is Ali.
      this I shall tell to the seeker of faith, behold!
      my faith is this, that I have my master Ali
      Maula Ali Maula, Maula Ali Maula.

      * Notes: Al-Bashiir ("Bearer of Glad Tidings") and an-Naziir ("the Warner" [for Mankind]) are titles given in the Quran to Prophet Muhammad in Surah Ahzaab (33rd Sura), verse 44: "O Prophet! We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and a Warner."

      This Qawwali song is famously known for its effect on the heart and mind of its listeners, specially when its sung traditionally in the presence of the great saints at their shrines. Qawwali of this nature has a certain quality that often brings spiritual rupture. The psycho-spiritual effect these sufi qawwalis bring are unparalleled. This particular Qawwali often throws people into ecstasy and can be even witnessed in present days at any Qawwali gatherings."

      courtesy of Mystics Saint 

      The undisputed Pakistani King of Sufi Qawwali Music, late Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Sings Hazrat Amir Khusro's 'Man Kunto Maula'

      شاهنشاه پاکستانی موسیقی صوفیانه قوالی -مرحوم استاد نصرت فتیح علی خان و شعر وآهنگ "من کنت مولا" حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      The reigning Pakistani Queen of Sufi Qawwali Music, Abida Parveen sings Hazrat Amir Khusro's 'Man Kunto Maula'

      ملکه بیهمتای پاکستانی موسیقی صوفیانه قوالی -خانم عابده پروین و شعر وآهنگ ؛من کنت مولا؛ حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      The reigning Queen of Sufi Qawwali Music, Abida Parveen sings Amir Khusro's 'Man Kunto Maula'

      ملکه بیهمتای پاکستانی موسیقی صوفیانه قوالی -خانم عابده پروین و شعر وآهنگ ؛من کنت مولا؛ حضرت امیر خسرو بلخی مشهور به دهلوی

      Persian-speaking Sufi Poet of India, Baydel Dehlavi

      The Tomb of Baydel in Delhi, India

      Baydel Life & Works - in Sindhi

      "Unlike the great Persian Sufi poets, Rumi, Hafiz, Saadi, or Khayam, and despite the depth of his Sufi knowledge and mystical poetry, the eminent 17th Century Persian-speaking Sufi poet of India, Baydel Dehlavi is still virtually unknown in the West, particularly here in America. Mirza Abdul-Qader Baydel (1644-1721) is one of the most respected poets from Afghanistan. In the early 17th century, his family moved from Balkh to India, to live under the Mughul dynasty. He was born and educated near Patna. In his later life he spent time travelling and visiting ancestral lands. His writings in Persian are extensive, being one of the creators of the ‘Indian style’. Bedil’s 16 books of poetry contain nearly 147,000 couplets. With Ghalib he is considered a master of the complicated ‘Indian Style’ of the ghazal. He had complicated views on the nature of God, heavily influenced by the Sufis. The correct rhyme-structure has been kept as well as the beauty and meaning of these beautiful and often mystical poems. Baydel or Bedil was the fore­most representative of the later phase of the “Indian style” (Sabk-e Hindī) of Persian poetry and the most difficult and challenging poet of that school (1644-1721)."

      The incomparable 17th century India-born Sufi poet of Mughal court, Mirza Abdul Qader Baydel or Bedil, is one of the least known of Persian Sufi poets even among the Persian speakers. If you've ever been to Delhi in India, particularly, if you've visited the Red Fort in Old Delhi, the Farsi writings on its walls are precisely Baydel's outstanding Sufi infused poems.

      Sadly, while Rumi is a household name and the widely read Persian poem here in America, Baydel's profound mystical poetry is still very little known. Baydel's lack of recognition is not limited just to America or the West in general, but it's also a known fact even amongst the Persian speakers-- while Baydel is a household name, revered as a saint, a sage and a seer, and the third most important poet in Afghanistan [after Rumi and Hafiz]; in Iran and Tajikistan, Baydel is barely known or just recently is being paid attention to.

      In my humble opinion, the main reason behind Baydel's lack of recognition, both in the East and the West, lies in the fact that his style of writing, and the deep mystical thoughts that each of his rhythmic verses hold are very difficult to grasp even for the native Persian speakers. Each poem of Baydel must be read, reread, and read again, in order to understand its intended Sufi infused mystical meanings and messages. So, it's against this challenging backdrop that I've attempted to translate some of his hard to decipher poems. 

      Baydel is a damn proud and unapologetic poet, and he bluntly warns us first hand:

      The superior level of my inner meanings
      requires a strong intellect,
      it's not that easy to simply grasp my thoughts.

      I'm a tall mountain, I've got steep hill!

      My sea of temperament, Baydel
      is the swell waves of the inner meanings.

      Whenever I feel like writing a verse,

      I've already got the whole poem down!

      Quit learning and profiting!

      Quit any desire and wishes!
      Drink wine and live joyously,
      That's exactly what I do for living!
      Baydel - My Translation

      معنی بلند من فهم تند می خواهد
      سیر فکرم آسان نیست، کوهم و کتل دارم
      بحر فطرتم بیدل، موج خیز معنی هاست
      مصرعی اگر خواهم سر کنم، غزل دارم
      ترک سود و سواد کن، قطع هر تمنا کن
      می خور و طربها کن، من هم این عمل دارم

      A poem is what rises from the heart
      and burns the lips.
      A poet is the one who makes a rare pearl
      from the scratches!
      Baydel - My Translation

      شعر آن باشد که خیزد از دل و جوشد به لب
      هست شاعرآنکسی کاین طرفه مروارید، سفت

      O Lord,
      Place your Divine Light inside my eyes.

      O Lord,
      Compensate my waiting for You,
      With the beauty of Your Divine Decree.

      O Lord,
      I'm neither colored with the joy of life
      Nor tasting the fresh date-fruits.

      I'm lost in Your Divine Garden,
      Hand me my own mirror.

      O Lord,
      Except for the amazement,
      What else can be the intercessor
      For the offenses of the ones separated from You?

      O Lord,
      Fulfill the wishes of Baydel's lifelong vision:
      Show me Your Divine Face.

      Baydel - My Translation

      خداوندا به آن نور نظر در ديده جا بنما
      به قدر انتظار ما جمال مدعا بنما
      نه رنگي از طرب داريم و نه از خرمي بويي
      چمن گم كرده ايم آيينهء ما را بما بنما
      شفيع جرم مهجوران بجز حيرت چه مي باشد
      به حق ديدهء بيدل كه ما را آن لقا بنما


      Who am I dying like this from the regret,
      Yet still surviving like a fire
      That's staying alive by burning itself?

      I'm neither sad nor happy.
      I'm neither word nor content.
      I'm neither turning wheel nor the planet.
      Then what's my purpose for being here?

      If I'm in the Sufi state of Fana or Self-annihilation,
      then what's this burning passion for life?
      If I'm in the Sufi state of Baqa or Eternal Union with God,

      then why am I still not being annihilated?

      Be proud o imagination, be proud
      for I still believe in life,
       though I'm already annihilated!

      O Lord,

      In this house of despair that we call life,
      no one has endured the kind of death I endure:
      I live to die without You, my Friend.

      Have a good laugh o appreciators of the moment

      I've seen myself laughing at my own Self.
      Baydel - My Translation

      چنين کشته حسرت کيستم من
      که چون اتش از سوختن زيستم من
      نه شادم نه محزون نه لفظم نه مضمون
      نه چرخم نه گردون چه معنيستم من
      اگر فانيم چيست اين شور هستي
      وگر باقيم ارچه فانيستم من
      بناز اي تخيل ببال اي توهم
      که هستي گمان دارم و نيستم من
      در اين غمکده کس مميراد يارب
      به مرگي که بي دوستان زيستم من
      بخنديد اي قدر دانان فرصت
      که يک خنده بر خويش نگريستم من

      In your worshiping and prostrations, Baydel
      stand steadfast as you are.

      As long as you carry

      the load of your ego on your shoulders,
      you'll end up keep bending your back.

      Learn from this inability embedded in your nature:

      You cannot become God, try being human!
      Baydel - My Translation

      بيدل به سجود و بندگي تو ام باش
      تا بار نفس به دوش داري خم باش
      زين عجز که در طينت تو گل کرده است
      الله نمي توان شدن آدم باش

      Carl W. Ernst is a specialist in Islamic studies, with a focus on West and South Asia. His published research, based on the study of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu, has been mainly devoted to the study of Islam and Sufism. On the faculty of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill since 1992, he has been department chair (1995-2000) and Zachary Smith Professor (2000-2005). He is now William R. Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Professor (2005- ) and Director of the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations.

      Muslim Saints of South Asia: 11th-15th Centuries


      "This book studies the veneration practices and rituals of the Muslim saints. It outlines the principle trends of the main Sufi orders in India, the profiles and teachings of the famous and less well-known saints, and the development of pilgrimage to their tombs in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A detailed discussion of the interaction of the Hindu mystic tradition and Sufism shows the polarity between the rigidity of the orthodox and the flexibility of the popular Islam in South Asia. Treating the cult of saints as a universal and all pervading phenomenon embracing the life of the region in all its aspects, the analysis includes politics, social and family life, interpersonal relations, gender problems and national psyche. The author uses a multidimensional approach to the subject: a historical, religious and literary analysis of sources is combined with an anthropological study of the rites and rituals of the veneration of the shrines and the description of the architecture of the tombs."

      "Sufism is often regarded as standing mystically aloof from its wider cultural settings. By turning this perspective on its head, Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century reveals the politics and poetry of Indian Sufism through the study of Islamic sainthood in the midst of a cosmopolitan Indian society comprising migrants, soldiers, litterateurs and princes. Placing the mystical traditions of Indian Islam within their cultural contexts, the study focuses on the shrines of four Sufi saints in the neglected Deccan region and their changing roles under the rule of the Mughals, the Nizams of Haydarabad and, after 1947, the Indian nation...  Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century is essential reading for scholars with interests in Sufism, Islam, India and cultural studies."

      Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-century Muslim India (Khwaja Mir Dard & Shah Abdul Latif)

      "The great German-born scholar of islamic Mysticism, late prof. Annemarie Schimmel's book, Pain and Grace. A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India, paints a vivid picture of the poems of Khwaja Mir Dard and Shah Abd al-Lat īf. Both works are products of deep acquaintance with the literary traditions of Islamic cultures. The ritual context of the poems, nonetheless, falls outside the scope of these works that are based on purely literary materials."

      Sufism, Its Saints and Shrines: an Introduction to the Study of Sufism with Special Reference to India

      "Sufism, Its Saints and Shrines is the first authoritative and detailed account of Sufism as it exists in India and Pakistan, and as such fills a colossal gap in the study of Sufi mystical movement. The author was at one time member of the Qadari order, a well known Sufi order. He compressed in this book a fascinating material starting with the early history of Sufism and ending with an account of its religious order and some of its principle saints. The highlight of this comprehensive work is the detailed account of the main Sufi traditional orders which have not been covered with the same authenticity in any other book. It provides information about the saints, their practices and thoughts. It is an effort to place before the readers, in systematic form, the varied and extensive thought from the original sources of Urdu and Persian literature."

      The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204 -1760 

      "In all of the South Asian Subcontinent, Bengal was the region most receptive to the Islamic faith. This area today is home to the world's second-largest Muslim ethnic population. How and why did such a large Muslim population emerge there? And how does such a religious conversion take place? Richard Eaton uses archaeological evidence, monuments, narrative histories, poetry, and Mughal administrative documents to trace the long historical encounter between Islamic and Indic civilizations.

      Moving from the year 1204, when Persianized Turks from North India annexed the former Hindu states of the lower Ganges delta, to 1760, when the British East India Company rose to political dominance there, Eaton explores these moving frontiers, focusing especially on agrarian growth and religious change."

      Hindu, Sufi, or Sikh: Contested Practices and Identifications of Sindhi Hindus in India and Beyond 

      "This multi-sited ethnography considers the impact of contested definitions on the experiences and representations of Sindhi Hindus. Ramey recognizes how the dominant definitions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism challenge communities who defy such understandings and analyzes the ways Sindhi Hindus have established their unconventional practices and heritage in the context of their diaspora. By analyzing concrete examples of the creation of a heritage in the context of migration, this book considers the implications of representations of religions for Sindhi Hindus and other similar communities."

      "The book, Yogis in Silence, the Great Sufi Masters provides a glimpse of the life and conduct of some of the great Sufi Masters from 8th Century AD onward. These great Masters lived like ordinary family persons, hiding their true self from the public. They believed, Perfection is not in exhibition of miraculous powers, but perfection is to sit among people, sell and buy, marry and have children; and yet never leave the presence of the Almighty even for one moment. The essence of their teachings is: desires are the world. Desires cause the worries and worries result into instability of mind."

      "The book, Sufism Beyond Religion is an attempt to distinguish between spirituality and religion, not by compring the two, but by describing how one could acquire spirituality, no matter what religion one follows. Sufism is the ancient wisdom, which is not confined to any particular religion and, therefore, Sufism cuts across the barriers of religion. The author has thrown a great deal of illuminating light on various points on the mysticism free from religious limitations, with special reference to certain such saints, who meditated for human integration and opposed every division of humanity in the name of God."

      Tasawwuf Ka Encyclopedia - in Urdu

      "Born in 
      Vadodara, India, Inayat Khan (1882-1927) brought the Sufi message of love, harmony and beauty to the West in 1910, and taught extensively in Europe, the UK and the USA. His teachings, recorded by his followers, fill many volumes and are available online or in print from several sources. Seven volumes of The Complete Works of Inayat Khan (about this edition), faithfully presenting his words as spoken, are available online for purchase or by free download. The more familiar Sufi Message volumes are also available online, presented here by Wahiduddin Richard Shelquist, gratis and with an excellent search function. For free downloads of Hazrat Inayat Khan's works in non-English languages, visit"

      "One of the most provocative and inspiring spiritual teachers of the twentieth century, Chandra Mohan Jain - better known as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh and also Osho ( 1931-1990) - defies categorization, reflecting everything from the individual quest for meaning to the most urgent social and political issues facing society today. His books are not written but are transcribed from recordings of extemporaneous talks given over a period of thirty-five years. Osho has been described by the Sunday Times in London as one of the ‘1000 Makers of the 20th Century’ and by Sunday Mid-Day in India as one of the ten people—along with Gandhi, Nehru and Buddha—who have changed the destiny of India. Osho has a stated aim of helping to create the conditions for the birth of a new kind of human being, characterized as ‘Zorba the Buddha’—one whose feet are firmly on the ground, yet whose hands can touch the stars. Running like a thread through all aspects of Osho is a vision that encompasses both the timeless wisdom of the East and the highest potential of Western science and technology. Known for his revolutionary contribution to the science of inner transformation, the influence of his teachings continues to grow, reaching seekers of all ages in virtually every country of the world."

      Sufi Teachings of Osho

      "Osho takes a dozen or so beautiful Sufi anecdotes and uses them as tools to chip away at the obsolete and blind belief systems in which modern man is ensnared... Jokes...paradox...parables...wisdom....absurdity...all to shake the reader out of his intellect and into the innocence of the mystic. Osho distills the essence of Sufism for the contemporary man, not to inform the reader about the state of mysticism but to create the situation in which we discover the mystic within ourselves."

      Ruminations of Mysticism in Rabindranath Tagore & Rumi
      Harini Jayaraman and M. G. Priya


      That moves and That moves not; 
      That is far and the same is near;
      That is within all this and
      That also is outside all this.
      --- 5, Isha Upanishad

      If ‘Duality’ is the nature of the entire universe,  why do mystics aim at achieving non-duality through duality? Why do they introduce  the concept of attaining the Supreme union
      through constant practice of closeness to God? To answer these questions, we may have to turn to mystics who have recorded their lofty thoughts and  pearls of wisdom in the literary pieces that have come down to us through generations.

      Read Entire Paper Below:

      Ruminations of Mysticism In Rabindranath Tagore And Rumi

      Rumi in the Land of Khusrau

      "Rumi, the mystic poet, was born in 1207 in Balkh, Afghanistan, which was then a part of the Persian Empire. Amir Khusrau was born in 1253 in Patiali, grew up on the banks of the river Ganges and composed poems of a mystic nature. 'Rumi in the land of Khusaru' is based on Tajjali, a Sufi concert where Persian and Indian dancers, musicians and singers perform in tandem with each other. The Indian musicians from regions of Kashmir, Awadh and Delhi render poems and compositions of Khusrau, and the Iranians sing the poems of Rumi. The film inter-cuts the concert with details from the life of Khusrau, and similarities between his poetry and Rumi's. The film also extensively uses the poetry of both the mystics."

      History of Sama and Qawwali in India

      The Origin and History of Qawwali

      "The roots of Qawwali can be traced back to 8th century Persia (today's Iran and Afghanistan). During the first major migration from Persia, in the 11th century, the musical tradition of Sema migrated to South Asia, Turkey and Uzbekistan. Amir Khusro Dehelvi of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian and Indian musical traditions to create Qawwali as we know it today in the late 13th century in India. The word Sama is often still used in Central Asia and Turkey to refer to forms very similar to Qawwali, and in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is Mehfil-e-Sama.

      Qaul (Arabic: قَوْل) is an "utterance (of the prophet)", Qawwāl is someone who often repeats (sings) a Qaul, Qawwāli is what a Qawwāl sings.

      The songs which constitute the qawwali repertoire are mostly in Urdu and Punjabi (almost equally divided between the two), although there are several songs in Persian, Brajbhasha and Saraiki. There is also Qawwali in some regional languages but the regional language tradition is relatively obscure. Also, the sound of the regional language Qawwali can be totally different from that of mainstream qawwali. This is certainly true of Chhote Babu Qawwal, whose sound is much closer to Baul music than to the Qawwali of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, for example.

      The poetry is implicitly understood to be spiritual in its meaning, even though the lyrics can sometimes sound wildly secular, or outright hedonistic. The central themes of Qawwali are love, devotion and longing (of
      Man for the Divine).

      Qawwalis are classified by their content into several categories:

      A hamd (حمد), Arabic for praise, is a song in praise of Allah. Traditionally, a Qawwali performance starts with a hamd.

      A naat (نعت), Arabic for description, is a song in praise of the Prophet Muhammad. The opening hamd is traditionally followed by a naat.

      A manqabat (plural manaqib, مناقب, which means characteristics) is a song in praise of either Imam Ali or one of the Sufi saints. Manaqib in praise of Ali are sung at both Sunni and Shi'a gatherings. If one is sung, it will follow right after the naat. There is usually at least one manqabat in a traditional program.

      A marsiya (مرثية), Arabic for lamentation for a dead person, is a lamentation over the death of much of Imam Husayn's family in the Battle of Karbala. This would typically be sung only at a Shi'a concert.

      A ghazal (غزل), Arabic for love song, is a song that sounds secular on the face of it. There are two extended metaphors that run through ghazals—the joys of drinking and the agony of separation from the beloved. These songs feature exquisite poetry, and can certainly be taken at face value, and enjoyed at that level.[4] In fact, in Pakistan and India, ghazal is also a separate, distinct musical genre in which many of the same songs are performed in a different musical style, and in a secular context. In the context of that genre, the songs are usually taken at face value, and no deeper meaning is necessarily implied. But in the context of Qawwali, these songs of intoxication and yearning use secular metaphors to poignantly express the soul's longing for union with the Divine, and its joy in loving the Divine. In the songs of intoxication, "wine" represents "knowledge of the Divine", the "cup-bearer" (saaqi) is God or a spiritual guide, the "tavern" is the metaphorical place where the soul may (or may not) be fortunate enough to attain spiritual enlightenment. (The "tavern" is emphatically not a conventional house of worship. Rather, it is taken to be the spiritual context within which the soul exists.) Intoxication is attaining spiritual knowledge, or being filled with the joy of loving the Divine. In the songs of yearning, the soul, having been abandoned in this world by that cruel and cavalier lover, God, sings of the agony of separation, and the depth of its yearning for reunion.

      A kafi is a poem in Punjabi, Seraiki or Sindhi, which is in the unique style of poets such as Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah and Sachal Sarmast. Two of the more well-known Kafis include Ni Main Jana Jogi De Naal and Mera Piya Ghar Aaya.

      A munajaat (مناجاة), Arabic for a conversation in the night or a form of prayer, is a song where the singer displays his thanks to Allah through a variety of linguistic techniques. It is often sung in Persian, with Maulana Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rumi credited as the author."

      Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan the undisputed King of Sufi Qawwali Music - sings Maulana Rumi's ghazals in Persian (Farsi Kalam  - 25 Videos)

      Sufi Qawwali Music

      The most comprehensive Blog on Sufi Qawwali Music from Indian Subcontinent

      - I highly recommend above Blog, if you're a fan of Sufi Qawwali Music.


        Enjoy over 1,000 Sufi & Qawwali Songs (all MP3 format) from around the world by visiting the outstanding Sufi Music Site:  

        Sufi Music

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